April 2013

Research articles

    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    A role for PVRL4-driven cell–cell interactions in tumorigenesis

    Natalya N Pavlova et al.
    A protein called PVRL4 has a central role in a number of cancers that originate in epithelial tissue, and anti-PVRL4 antibodies could be used to treat some of these cancers.
    1. Plant Biology

    Accurate timekeeping is controlled by a cycling activator in Arabidopsis

    Polly Yingshan Hsu et al.
    The circadian clock in the model plant organism Arabidopsis thaliana is best described as a highly connected network made up of clock-regulated activators and repressors of transcription, rather than two coupled, repressor-based feedback loops.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Native α-synuclein induces clustering of synaptic-vesicle mimics via binding to phospholipids and synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2

    Jiajie Diao et al.
    Experiments on synthetic models of synaptic vesicles have shed new light on the role of the protein α-synuclein in the central nervous system.
    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Contributions of mast cells and vasoactive products, leukotrienes and chymase, to dengue virus-induced vascular leakage

    Ashley L St John et al.
    Proteins produced by mast cells modulate the permeability of blood vessels, and may determine whether patients infected with dengue virus develop life-threatening complications.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Ovulation in Drosophila is controlled by secretory cells of the female reproductive tract

    Jianjun Sun, Allan C Spradling
    Secretory cells in the fruit fly reproductive tract produce secretions that control ovulation through a conserved mechanism that could provide insights into ovarian cancer.
    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define Herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract

    Joshua T Schiffer et al.
    A combination of detailed sampling and mathematical modeling suggests that the response of immune cells to reactivation of herpes simplex virus 2 is extremely rapid and effective within microscopic areas of genital skin.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    DNA deaminases induce break-associated mutation showers with implication of APOBEC3B and 3A in breast cancer kataegis

    Benjamin JM Taylor et al.
    Enzymes that remove amine groups from cytosine bases in DNA are likely involved in generating the clusters of mutations (kataegis) seen in breast cancer.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs

    Se Jin Song et al.
    Research on humans and dogs reveals that the communities of microorganisms found on the skin, on the tongue and in the intestine are affected differently by age and cohabitation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    Elizabeth D Kirby et al.
    Exposing rats to acute stress increased the generation of new neurons in a subregion of the hippocampus, and improved the animals' performance in a memory task two weeks later.
    1. Cell Biology

    The ART-Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase network comprises a plasma membrane quality control system that protects yeast cells from proteotoxic stress

    Yingying Zhao et al.
    Ubiquitin ligase adaptors target the selective clearance of misfolded plasma membrane proteins.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    SEC24A deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol through reduced PCSK9 secretion

    Xiao-Wei Chen et al.
    COPII vesicles regulate the metabolism of cholesterol through the selective transport of secretory proteins.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Overcoming mutation-based resistance to antiandrogens with rational drug design

    Minna D Balbas et al.
    Mutagenesis studies identified an androgen receptor mutation that converts enzalutamide-a drug recently approved for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer-into an androgen receptor agonist, and modeling studies informed the design of novel drugs that are effective against the mutant receptor.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Usf1, a suppressor of the circadian Clock mutant, reveals the nature of the DNA-binding of the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex in mice

    Kazuhiro Shimomura et al.
    A gene that codes for a transcription factor that is involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism also has a role in the regulation of circadian rhythms.
    1. Biochemistry

    Stepwise assembly of the human replicative polymerase holoenzyme

    Mark Hedglin et al.
    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer has been used to explore the interactions between DNA polymerases, sliding clamps and clamp loaders as DNA is replicated in human cells.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structural analyses at pseudo atomic resolution of Chikungunya virus and antibodies show mechanisms of neutralization

    Siyang Sun et al.
    Electron cryo-microscopy has been used to determine the structure of Chikungunya virus-like particles and to provide new insights into their interactions with four different antibodies.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Improved use of a public good selects for the evolution of undifferentiated multicellularity

    John H Koschwanez et al.
    The ability to share resources for the benefit of all members of a group may have driven ancient organisms to evolve from a unicellular to a multicellular state.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Mechanism for priming DNA synthesis by yeast DNA Polymerase α

    Rajika L Perera et al.
    The details of how the enzyme DNA polymerase α initiates the polymerization of nucleotides in DNA replication, a critical step in the synthesis of new chromosomal DNA, have been revealed in atomic detail.