During learning, one climbing fiber input instructs plasticity that is expressed in the simple-spike responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells, and causes neural learning that may inhibit future climbing fiber instructions.
The transition to the aggregative stage of Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative to Metazoa, is associated with significant upregulation of orthologs of genes that are important for multicellularity in metazoans.
The differentiation decisions made by pluripotent cells depend on their exposure to appropriate extrinsic signals and also on morphogenetic events that control receptivity to those differentiation cues.
A comprehensive and genome-wide description of the genomic make-up and frequency of meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals regional preferences, including nucleosome-free regions, and two associated recombination motifs.
A single point mutation in a Ras activator leads to aberrant constitutive mTOR signaling in peripheral T cells that consequently accumulate as abnormal T helper cells and stimulate the production of autoantibodies by B cells.
Novel spatial representations by hippocampal cellular assemblies develop on the framework of preconfigured hippocampal networks whose homeostatic synaptic reorganization is accelerated by prior experience and CA3 NMDAR-dependent plasticity.
Mutations that reduce the functioning of rab7 may underlie the degeneration of sensory and motor nerves in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2B disease, which suggests increasing endolysosomal function as a therapy.
The major evolutionary routes to drug resistance in Salmonella Typhi are associated with fitness benefits, not fitness costs, implying that prudent antimicrobial use will have no effect as a public health intervention in controlling typhoid fever.
Structural biology has elucidated the mechanism of a configuration-specific enzyme that decouples D-amino acids from the translational machinery and, therefore, is involved in the enforcement of homochirality during protein synthesis.