August 2014

Cover articles

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Research articles

    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Ecology and evolution of viruses infecting uncultivated SUP05 bacteria as revealed by single-cell- and meta-genomics

    Simon Roux et al.
    Single-cell amplified genome sequencing uncovers virus-host interactions in uncultivated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with relevance to coupled biogeochemical cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Divergent kleisin subunits of cohesin specify mechanisms to tether and release meiotic chromosomes

    Aaron F Severson, Barbara J Meyer
    Mechanisms that tether and release replicated sister chromatids to produce sperm and eggs rely extensively on meiotic cohesin complexes that are endowed with unexpectedly different properties specified by a single interchangeable subunit, the α-kleisin.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    RNA-guided assembly of Rev-RRE nuclear export complexes

    Yun Bai et al.
    Tertiary folding of the Rev-response element (RRE) in HIV RNA ensures the rapid formation of the Rev-RRE viral ribonucleoprotein particle via a two-step process.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Identification of the transcription factor ZEB1 as a central component of the adipogenic gene regulatory network

    Carine Gubelmann et al.
    A large-scale transcription factor screen reveals over twenty novel adipogenic regulators: most notably ZEB1, which exerts essential transcriptional control of fat cell differentiation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Evolutionary consequences of intra-patient phage predation on microbial populations

    Kimberley D Seed et al.
    Bacterial viruses are an unexpected ‘third party’ that imposes a strong predatory pressure on a bacterial pathogen during the natural course of infection in humans.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Adipocyte ALK7 links nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance in obesity

    Tingqing Guo et al.
    The ALK7 receptor functions cell-autonomously and homeostatically in adult adipocytes to regulate catecholamine sensitivity in response to the diet.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Methylation of histone H3K23 blocks DNA damage in pericentric heterochromatin during meiosis

    Romeo Papazyan et al.
    A previously unappreciated histone methylation pathway helps limit DNA double-strand break formation and recombination in heterochromatin during meiosis.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    How lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) activates Torsin

    Brian A Sosa et al.
    LAP1 adopts an AAA+ like fold that, while unable to bind nucleotide, can enhance ATPase activity in the neighboring TorsinA protomer in an unusual heterohexameric ring, via an arginine finger.
    1. Immunology

    Recognition of tumor cells by Dectin-1 orchestrates innate immune cells for anti-tumor responses

    Shiho Chiba et al.
    An immune system pattern recognition receptor potentiates anti-tumor innate immune responses, offering new insight into anti-tumor activity of the innate immune system.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    A molecular mechanism of mitotic centrosome assembly in Drosophila

    Paul T Conduit et al.
    The proteins DSpd-2 and Centrosomin assemble into dynamic scaffolds that build from the inside out around the mother centriole and support centrosome maturation.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly

    Sabina Schütz et al.
    The Tsr2 carrier protein connects the nuclear import machinery with the ribosome assembly pathway.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Extensive translation of small Open Reading Frames revealed by Poly-Ribo-Seq

    Julie L Aspden et al.
    Thousands of small Open Reading Frames are translated, and form two distinct classes based on their translational efficiency and bioinformatic indicators.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Ribosomal protein S27-like is a physiological regulator of p53 that suppresses genomic instability and tumorigenesis

    Xiufang Xiong et al.
    The ribosomal protein, Rps27l, plays an oncogenic role by promoting p53 degradation via stabilizing the Mdm2-Mdm4 complex, but a tumor suppressor role by preventing the aneuploidy and loss of p53 heterozygosity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reconceiving the hippocampal map as a topological template

    Yuri Dabaghian et al.
    Empirical evidence suggests that the hippocampus constructs maps of spatial environments based on the relative locations of places (i.e., topology), rather than absolute distances and coordinates (i.e., geometry).
    1. Neuroscience

    A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    Andrew M Seeds et al.
    Gaining genetic control over neural modules that drive the grooming of each Drosophila body part reveals how mechanisms for selecting among competing behavioral choices are used to generate sequences of actions.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorders

    Jan Sundquist et al.
    A Swedish national cohort study reveals that children with a family history of alcohol use disorders have an increased risk of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shared mushroom body circuits underlie visual and olfactory memories in Drosophila

    Katrin Vogt et al.
    One memory center in the fly brain processes distinct appetitive and aversive associative memories of olfactory and visual cues using shared local circuits.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Selection of chromosomal DNA libraries using a multiplex CRISPR system

    Owen W Ryan et al.
    An optimized CRISPR-Cas9 system enables multiplexed genome engineering for evolving biomolecules and pathways from chromosomally integrated DNA libraries.
    1. Cell Biology

    The master cell cycle regulator APC-Cdc20 regulates ciliary length and disassembly of the primary cilium

    Weiping Wang et al.
    The anaphase promoting complex (APC) has an essential role in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in the disassembly of cilia.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Identification of a new stem cell population that generates Drosophila flight muscles

    Rajesh D Gunage et al.
    Large flight muscle of Drosophila are made by the regulated amplification of a newly identified stem cell population.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    mRNA-programmed translation pauses in the targeting of E. coli membrane proteins

    Nir Fluman et al.
    Translation pauses occur in strategic positions to facilitate the production of properly folded membrane proteins in bacteria.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Molecular assembly of the period-cryptochrome circadian transcriptional repressor complex

    Shannon N Nangle et al.
    X-ray crystallography reveals the structural framework for understanding the function of mammalian transcriptional repression in the cellular circadian clock.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Microtubules provide directional information for core PCP function

    Maja Matis et al.
    The Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed (Ft/Ds/Fj) system provides a spatial signal to organize core PCP proteins via the polarization of microtubules.
    1. Cell Biology

    Epsin deficiency impairs endocytosis by stalling the actin-dependent invagination of endocytic clathrin-coated pits

    Mirko Messa et al.
    Epsin has a key role in the coupling of actin to endocytic clathrin coated pits that is required for their maturation and helps capture SNAREs at endocytic clathrin coated pits.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Beam-induced motion correction for sub-megadalton cryo-EM particles

    Sjors HW Scheres
    Building on previous work (Bai et al., 2013), we describe an algorithm that allows cryo-EM structure determination to near-atomic resolution for protein complexes as small as 170 kDa.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Prion propagation can occur in a prokaryote and requires the ClpB chaperone

    Andy H Yuan et al.
    The bacterium Escherichia coli possesses a permissive cytoplasmic environment and the requisite molecular machinery to support the propagation of prions.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Complexin inhibits spontaneous release and synchronizes Ca2+-triggered synaptic vesicle fusion by distinct mechanisms

    Ying Lai et al.
    Building on previous work (Diao et al., 2012), we show that the mechanism by which complexin suppresses spontaneous fusion is distinct from the mechanism by which it synchronizes Ca2+-triggered fusion.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    A long non-coding RNA is required for targeting centromeric protein A to the human centromere

    Delphine Quénet, Yamini Dalal
    A non-coding RNA-based targeting mechanism could potentially epigenetically maintain specialized chromatin structures, such as the centromere, in vivo.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human premotor areas parse sequences into their spatial and temporal features

    Katja Kornysheva, Jörn Diedrichsen
    Neuroimaging provides novel insights into how the motor system represents sequences of actions by automatically separating their spatial and temporal features for flexible skill production.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    DNA binding polarity, dimerization, and ATPase ring remodeling in the CMG helicase of the eukaryotic replisome

    Alessandro Costa et al.
    The Mcm2-7 motor unwinds DNA using an approach distinct from that of superfamily III helicases, and accesses multiple ring configurations and assembly states during the initiation of DNA replication.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The transcription factor NRSF contributes to epileptogenesis by selective repression of a subset of target genes

    Shawn McClelland et al.
    Uncovering the mechanisms by which the transcription factor NRSF contributes to the development of epilepsy reveals that the regulation of gene expression by transcription factors in the brain is more finely-tuned than previously thought.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Direct measurement of the mechanical work during translocation by the ribosome

    Tingting Liu et al.
    ‘Optical tweezers’ measurements of single ribosomes and single mRNA molecules show that the translation rate depends exponentially on the applied force, and suggests that the ribosome functions as a Brownian ratchet.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    MicroRNA-mediated repression of nonsense mRNAs

    Ya Zhao et al.
    microRNAs can serve as a surveillance system to repress nonsense mRNAs by recognizing miRNA-responsive elements in the open reading frame region downstream of the premature termination codon.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    The Drosophila F-box protein Fbxl7 binds to the protocadherin Fat and regulates Dachs localization and Hippo signaling

    Justin A Bosch et al.
    The F-box protein Fbxl7 is a direct effector of the protocadherin Fat and functions in downstream pathways that regulate tissue shape and size.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    A role of OCRL in clathrin-coated pit dynamics and uncoating revealed by studies of Lowe syndrome cells

    Ramiro Nández et al.
    Studies of Lowe syndrome patient cells, which lack the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL, suggest that a defect in endocytosis plays a role in the pathological manifestations of the disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Resting state functional connectivity in the human spinal cord

    Robert L Barry et al.
    Resting state spinal fMRI will be useful in studies of normal spinal cord function and central nervous system disorders.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    A tethered delivery mechanism explains the catalytic action of a microtubule polymerase

    Pelin Ayaz et al.
    Using linked TOG domains that each bind a curved conformation of αβ-tubulin, a microtubule polymerase catalyzes fast elongation by concentrating αβ-tubulin near the polymer end.
    1. Neuroscience

    Protein kinase C is a calcium sensor for presynaptic short-term plasticity

    Diasynou Fioravante et al.
    Genetic and electrophysiology experiments provide the first direct evidence that protein kinase C is a calcium-sensing protein in post-tetanic potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity that supports short-term memory.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Assembly principles of a unique cage formed by hexameric and decameric E. coli proteins

    Hélène Malet et al.
    Cryo-electron microscopy uncovers molecular determinants of a unique symmetry mismatched macromolecular cage in E. coli.