The conversion of the ends of a double-strand break from double-stranded to single-stranded DNA, which is necessary to initiate homologous recombination, is responsible for loss of transcription and RNA polymerase occupancy around the double-strand break in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The bacterial cytolysin synthetase CylM has a eukaryotic lipid kinase fold despite the absence of any clear sequence similarity, and contains adjacent phosphorylation and phosphate elimination active sites and an ordered activation loop in the absence of peptide substrate or regulatory proteins.
A novel high-throughput, whole organism chemical screening platform was used to identify existing drugs that increase pancreatic beta-cell mass in zebrafish, implicating unique roles for the NF-κB and serotonergic signaling pathways in regulating pancreatic biology.
Individual neurons can adjust the strength of their synapses by using spontaneous calcium influx through NMDA receptors to trigger the release of additional calcium from intracellular stores, which can in turn be used to regulate protein synthesis.
From public microbial genomes, VirSorter revealed 12,498 viral genome sequences that expand the map of the global virosphere and whose analyses improve understanding of viral taxonomy, evolution and virus-host interactions.
TERT promoter mutations impair TERT silencing upon cellular differentiation and are sufficient to facilitate cellular immortalization without additional tumor selected changes, explaining why they are associated with a very specific tumor spectrum.
Germ cell ablation delays C. elegans aging, in part, because unconsumed fat triggers activation of the detoxification factor SKN-1/Nrf, which is regulated by lipid signals and maintains lipid homeostasis.
Binding of STIL to PLK4's characteristic Polo-box 3 links PLK4 kinase activation to STIL self-association and is a crucial regulatory step for the localized recruitment of downstream factors in centriole duplication.
Two newly identified assembly factors for the ribosome-associated iron-sulfur protein Rli1 reveal a general mechanism for how the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery recruits apoproteins.
Insights into the basic metabolic architecture and adaptations of malaria parasites for growth within human erythrocytes exemplify how incisive knowledge of biochemical pathways and mechanisms may be leveraged to develop new therapies.
Eps8, a specific effector of oncogenic signaling, organizes the cortical actin cytoskeleton of cancer cells to promote mechanical properties that favor a newly identified mode of confined, adhesion-independent cell migration.
Immature and mature granule cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus show differing responses to physiologically relevant stimuli, with immature cells better at encoding stimulus frequency and mature cells better at encoding stimulus onset.
An individual-based model estimates exogenous boosting of immunity following re-exposure to chickenpox is limited to 2 years after re-exposure, but an increase in herpes zoster incidence is still expected to occur following universal varicella vaccination.
Structural and functional analyses show how the spliceosomal Prp3 protein concomitantly binds double- and single- stranded regions in U4/U6 di-snRNAs and serves to stabilize the U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNP for splicing.
Structures of the signal recognition particle before and after it captures a transmembrane domain suggest how it chooses, engages, and shields its clients during membrane protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum.
The crystal structure of Norrie Disease Protein in complex with the extracellular cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled4 receptor and sucrose octasulfate reveals binding sites for Frizzled4, low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5/6, and proteoglycan.
Spontaneous, irregular spiking in single cortical pyramidal neurons assembles as neuronal avalanches at the group level identifying a robust scale-invariant organization of resting activity in the awake state.
Analysis of a spermiogenesis protein reveals a new chromatin requirement for synchrony between maternal DNA packaged in the egg and sperm-packaged paternal DNA in the first embryonic mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster.
Random fluctuations in neuronal firing may enable a single brain region, the medial entorhinal cortex, to perform distinct roles in cognition (by generating gamma waves) and spatial navigation (by producing a grid cell map).
A structural element of mRNA exit channel protein Rps5 performs a critical role in start codon recognition during translation initiation by stabilizing initiator tRNA binding to the pre-initiation complex.