May 2015

Research articles

    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Kinetochore-independent chromosome segregation driven by lateral microtubule bundles

    Christina C Muscat et al.
    Chromosomes in C. elegans female reproductive cells segregate through motor-driven movement along lateral microtubule bundles.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Functional genome-wide siRNA screen identifies KIAA0586 as mutated in Joubert syndrome

    Susanne Roosing et al.
    A supervised learning approach on a high-content genome-wide siRNA screen has identified 591 likely candidates for ciliopathies and facilitated in the discovery of KIAA0586 mutations in individuals with Joubert syndrome.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation

    Kacper B Rogala et al.
    SAS-5 forms oligomers, through a trimeric coiled coil and novel dimeric domain, that are necessary for centriolar localisation of SAS-5 and for centriole duplication.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Measuring the optimal exposure for single particle cryo-EM using a 2.6 Å reconstruction of rotavirus VP6

    Timothy Grant, Nikolaus Grigorieff
    The resolution of electron cryo-microscopy can be improved by using optimal exposure values to filter video frames.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Speech encoding by coupled cortical theta and gamma oscillations

    Alexandre Hyafil et al.
    Computational modelling shows that coupled theta and gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex can decompose speech into its syllabic constituents, and organize the neural spiking at faster timescale into a decodable format.
    1. Neuroscience

    Female mice ultrasonically interact with males during courtship displays

    Joshua P Neunuebel et al.
    A microphone array enables the vocal contribution of each socially interacting individual to be quantified, and reveals that vocalizations are exchanged between the sexes during mouse courtship.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    The hormonal peptide Elabela guides angioblasts to the midline during vasculogenesis

    Christian SM Helker et al.
    Elabela-Apelin receptor signaling is a novel pathway that regulates angioblast migration, instead of the proposed migration regulation through Vascular endothelial growth factor.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    ULK3 regulates cytokinetic abscission by phosphorylating ESCRT-III proteins

    Anna Caballe et al.
    ULK3 is a kinase in the abscission checkpoint that temporarily inactivates ESCRT-III proteins via phosphorylation, which is required to delay cytokinesis in response to defects in mitosis.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2 is required for efficient centriole assembly in flies

    Matthew A Cottee et al.
    The structure of the Ana2 Central Coiled-Coil Domain provides insight into how centriolar cartwheel components may be recruited and assembled, and indicates that cartwheel assembly involves more than just SAS-6 oligomerisation.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for systemic salmonellae virulence

    Kevin G Hicks et al.
    Receptor recognition of antimicrobial peptides is important for Salmonellae to survive inside macrophages and cause disease.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Immunology

    The kinase DYRK1A reciprocally regulates the differentiation of Th17 and regulatory T cells

    Bernard Khor et al.
    A chemical biology approach has identified the kinase DYRK1A as a new regulator of the inflammatory response.
    1. Cell Biology

    A new family of StART domain proteins at membrane contact sites has a role in ER-PM sterol transport

    Alberto T Gatta et al.
    A new family of sterol-specific lipid transfer proteins has been found that anchors in the endoplasmic reticulum; some of these proteins stretch across membrane contacts and mediate sterol traffic from the plasma membrane.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Chemical activation of the mechanotransduction channel Piezo1

    Ruhma Syeda et al.
    A chemical activator of the mechanosensitive Piezo1 ion channel has been identified.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Piezo1 links mechanical forces to red blood cell volume

    Stuart M Cahalan et al.
    In red blood cells, the Piezo1 protein is responsible for sensing mechanical forces and volume regulation.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structure of a type IV pilus machinery in the open and closed state

    Vicki AM Gold et al.
    Electron cryo-tomography reveals a huge conformational change in the secretin domain of the type IV pilus machinery that occurs when the channel opens for pilus extrusion.
    1. Cell Biology

    QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology

    Virginia Guarani et al.
    A comprehensive analysis of the human MICOS complex has identified a novel subunit called QIL1 that is required for cristae junction formation in human cells and Drosophila, through its role in the assembly of the MICOS complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct cortical codes and temporal dynamics for conscious and unconscious percepts

    Moti Salti et al.
    Stimuli are encoded differently in the brain when perceived consciously and unconsciously; for conscious perception, the representations are stronger in certain brain regions and they display more complex dynamics.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    A structure-based extracellular matrix expansion mechanism of fibrous tissue growth

    Nicholas S Kalson et al.
    Tendon fibroblast cells lay down a collagen matrix template during embryogenesis, and the expansion of this matrix drives post-natal tissue growth.
    1. Neuroscience

    Thalamic theta phase alignment predicts human memory formation and anterior thalamic cross-frequency coupling

    Catherine M Sweeney-Reed et al.
    Building on previous work (Sweeney-Reed et al., 2014), it is shown that the timing of the theta rhythm of the right anterior thalamic nucleus predicts human memory formation.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    A functional link between the co-translational protein translocation pathway and the UPR

    Rachel Plumb et al.
    Ire1α co-opts the Sec61 translocon channel to efficiently cleave its mRNA substrates during endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dysregulated Dscam levels act through Abelson tyrosine kinase to enlarge presynaptic arbors

    Gabriella R Sterne et al.
    Targeting Abelson kinase can be beneficial for treating disorders characterized by dysregulated Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule signaling.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress-independent activation of unfolded protein response kinases by a small molecule ATP-mimic

    Aaron S Mendez et al.
    A rationally designed small molecule ATP-mimetic activates IRE1 and PERK signaling in cells by inducing conformational changes that template the assembly of higher-order enzymatically active structures.
    1. Neuroscience

    An excitatory amacrine cell detects object motion and provides feature-selective input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina

    Tahnbee Kim et al.
    The mouse visual system is able to detect small moving objects due to the activity of VG3-amacrine cells, an unusual type of modulatory cell that uses the transmitter glutamate to activate retinal output cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    A native interactor scaffolds and stabilizes toxic ATAXIN-1 oligomers in SCA1

    Cristian A Lasagna-Reeves et al.
    Studies in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 show that a protein called capicua stabilizes toxic ataxin-1 oligomers offering a possible explanation for regional patterns of neurodegeneration.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Quantitative isoform-profiling of highly diversified recognition molecules

    Dietmar Schreiner et al.
    A technique called selected reaction monitoring can quantitatively detect highly diversified protein isoforms and their association with specific neuronal structures and complexes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking

    Thomas Pohlmann et al.
    An endosomal component employs a novel PAM2-like motif to recruit a key RNA-binding protein, which explains how mRNAs and associated ribosomes are attached to endosomes during coupled transport.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Limits on information transduction through amplitude and frequency regulation of transcription factor activity

    Anders S Hansen, Erin K O'Shea
    The ability of cells to transmit information encoded in signaling dynamics is fundamentally limited by the gene decoding step.
    1. Neuroscience

    The critical role of membralin in postnatal motor neuron survival and disease

    Bo Yang et al.
    Membralin mutant mice manifest a severe and early-onset motor neuron disease with defects in endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    Catastrophic chromosomal restructuring during genome elimination in plants

    Ek Han Tan et al.
    Complex chromosomal rearrangements similar to those described in cancer and developmental syndromes occur in plants during postzygotic genome elimination, a centromeric-derived incompatibility.
    1. Immunology

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ and membrane potential, an alternative pathway for Interleukin 6 to regulate CD4 cell effector function

    Rui Yang et al.
    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) can mediate pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases through its effects on mitochondrial function.
    1. Neuroscience

    Projection neurons in Drosophila antennal lobes signal the acceleration of odor concentrations

    Anmo J Kim et al.
    Neurons in the fruit fly olfactory system respond most strongly to the sudden appearance of an odor, and to odors that are changing rapidly in strength, but are relatively insensitive to the absolute levels of an odor.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Social communication of predator-induced changes in Drosophila behavior and germ line physiology

    Balint Z Kacsoh et al.
    Reproductive behavior is conferred from experienced to naïve Drosophila as a behavioral social strategy allowing naïve groups to anticipate a threat from a predator.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Cooperative base pair melting by helicase and polymerase positioned one nucleotide from each other

    Divya Nandakumar et al.
    A detailed model of the T7 replisome with the precise positions of the helicase and polymerase at the replication fork explains how catalysis by the two enzymes is coordinated.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    Ning Zheng et al.
    There are at least two separate pathways for AMPA receptor recycling, which are regulated by synaptic activity.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Ecology

    De novo synthesis of a sunscreen compound in vertebrates

    Andrew R Osborn et al.
    Many vertebrates are able to synthesize a sunscreen compound de novo and the pathway involved can be used for heterologous production of the compound in yeast.
    1. Neuroscience

    A gene-expression-based neural code for food abundance that modulates lifespan

    Eugeni V Entchev et al.
    TGFβ and serotonin signaling in a neural circuit encodes food availability; these signals regulate the dynamic range and variability on the circuit to impact coding accuracy and lifespan responses.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Dynamic BMP signaling polarized by Toll patterns the dorsoventral axis in a hemimetabolous insect

    Lena Sachs et al.
    During the evolution of insect lineages, a signaling pathway dedicated to pathogen defense was co-opted for a new role in embryonic patterning.
    1. Neuroscience

    A novel inhibitory nucleo-cortical circuit controls cerebellar Golgi cell activity

    Lea Ankri et al.
    The glycinergic neurons of the cerebellar nuclei project extensively to the cerebellar cortex and inhibit GABAergic Golgi cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Tinnitus and hyperacusis involve hyperactivity and enhanced connectivity in auditory-limbic-arousal-cerebellar network

    Yu-Chen Chen et al.
    A comprehensive battery of behavioral, electrophysiological and functional MRI techniques has allowed the development of a data-driven conceptual model of the tinnitus-hyperacusis network.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    A distinct p53 target gene set predicts for response to the selective p53–HDM2 inhibitor NVP-CGM097

    Sébastien Jeay et al.
    The discovery and preclinical validation of a novel gene signature predictive for response to HDM2-targeting drug NVP-CGM097 could significantly improve the clinical response rate to all p53-HDM2 inhibitors.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    A conserved histidine modulates HSPB5 structure to trigger chaperone activity in response to stress-related acidosis

    Ponni Rajagopal et al.
    Small decreases in pH associated with cellular stress conditions unleash a cryptic mode of client binding in a ubiquitously expressed human small heat shock protein that is more effective at delaying client aggregation.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Plant Biology

    Local chromatin environment of a Polycomb target gene instructs its own epigenetic inheritance

    Scott Berry et al.
    Two copies of a Polycomb target gene in the same cell can be maintained in independently heritable expression states, demonstrating that long-term memory of gene expression is stored locally.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    The mammalian lectin galectin-8 induces RANKL expression, osteoclastogenesis, and bone mass reduction in mice

    Yaron Vinik et al.
    The secreted sugar-binding protein galectin-8 causes osteoblasts to secrete factors that promote the differentiation of bone marrow cells into osteoclasts; targeting this protein could therefore potentially help treat diseases associated with excessive bone loss.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Dosage compensation can buffer copy-number variation in wild yeast

    James Hose et al.
    Dosage-compensated gene expression facilitates chromosomal aneuploidy, which presents a rapid route to phenotypic evolution in natural yeast isolates.
    1. Immunology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Malaria-associated atypical memory B cells exhibit markedly reduced B cell receptor signaling and effector function

    Silvia Portugal et al.
    Atypical memory B cells (MBCs) appear to differentiate from classical MBCs during chronic exposure to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and may interfere with the acquisition of immunity to the disease.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Maturation of a central brain flight circuit in Drosophila requires Fz2/Ca2+ signaling

    Tarjani Agrawal, Gaiti Hasan
    Gene knockdown experiments in fruit fly pupae reveal the role of the signaling molecule 'dFrizzled2' in the development of a neural circuit that helps insects to fly continuously for extended periods.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud

    Michael A Cianfrocco, Andres E Leschziner
    A freely available software environment on Amazon's cloud computing network makes processing of cryo-EM data accessible and affordable.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Tarantula toxins use common surfaces for interacting with Kv and ASIC ion channels

    Kanchan Gupta et al.
    The tarantula toxins psalmotoxin and guangxitoxin have a similar concave surface for interacting with α-helices in voltage-gated and acid-sensing ion channels.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Visualization and functional dissection of coaxial paired SpoIIIE channels across the sporulation septum

    Jae Yen Shin et al.
    SpoIIIE forms a protein channel that spans the two lipid bilayers of the septum and mediates chromosome translocation and reversible membrane fission during Bacilus subtilis sporulation.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Myoblast cytonemes mediate Wg signaling from the wing imaginal disc and Delta-Notch signaling to the air sac primordium

    Hai Huang, Thomas B Kornberg
    Cytonemes mediate, and are essential for, Wingless signaling from the Drosophila wing disc to disc-associated myoblasts and for Delta-Notch signaling from these myoblasts to the dorsal air sac primordium.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis and outer membrane constriction during Escherichia coli cell division

    Andrew N Gray et al.
    The protein CpoB regulates PBP1B activity in response to the Tol energy state, which facilitates feedback and synchronicity between envelope constriction processes during Gram-negative bacterial cell division.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    SMC condensin entraps chromosomal DNA by an ATP hydrolysis dependent loading mechanism in Bacillus subtilis

    Larissa Wilhelm et al.
    The Smc–ScpAB complex-a prokaryotic ancestor of cohesin, condensin and Smc5/6-loads onto the bacterial chromosome by employing ATP hydrolysis to capture DNA fibers within its tripartite ring.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Receptor tyrosine kinases modulate distinct transcriptional programs by differential usage of intracellular pathways

    Harish N Vasudevan et al.
    PDGF and FGF signal via distinct intracellular pathways to confer different cellular outcomes during craniofacial development.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    The biological function of an insect antifreeze protein simulated by molecular dynamics

    Michael J Kuiper et al.
    Simulations of the biological function of an antifreeze protein reveal its molecular interactions with the ice/water interface.
    1. Neuroscience

    Computations underlying Drosophila photo-taxis, odor-taxis, and multi-sensory integration

    Ruben Gepner et al.
    Optogenetics and reverse-correlation have decoded the computations by which the Drosophila larva makes navigational decisions on the basis of time-varying sensory neuron activity.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    MorphoGraphX: A platform for quantifying morphogenesis in 4D

    Pierre Barbier de Reuille et al.
    MorphoGraphX summarizes full 3D datasets as curved surface images (2.5D), enabling the efficient quantification of growth and gene expression data from large time-lapse volumetric datasets.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Chromosome mis-segregation and cytokinesis failure in trisomic human cells

    Joshua M Nicholson et al.
    Aneuploidy can cause chromosome mis-segregation and specific cellular phenotypes driven by expression of genes on the extra chromosome.
    1. Neuroscience

    Reverse-correlation analysis of navigation dynamics in Drosophila larva using optogenetics

    Luis Hernandez-Nunez et al.
    Optogenetic stimulation of odor- and taste-sensing neurons of the fruit fly larva combined with reverse-correlation analysis has been used to build mathematical models that predict navigational behavior.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Recurrent turnover of senescent cells during regeneration of a complex structure

    Maximina H Yun et al.
    Senescent cells are recurrently induced during limb regeneration in salamanders and subsequently eliminated by a highly efficient mechanism of macrophage-dependent surveillance.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has a genetic basis and shows evidence of local adaptation

    Manu J Dubin et al.
    The adaptation of Arabidopsis plants to the local environment is linked to DNA methylation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Vacillation, indecision and hesitation in moment-by-moment decoding of monkey motor cortex

    Matthew T Kaufman et al.
    Trial-by-trial analysis of neuronal activity in monkeys performing a decision-making task reveals the neural correlates of behaviours including wavering, hesitation and sudden changes of mind.