May 2016

Research articles

    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Hyperosmotic stress memory in Arabidopsis is mediated by distinct epigenetically labile sites in the genome and is restricted in the male germline by DNA glycosylase activity

    Anjar Wibowo et al.
    Transient adaptation to environmental fluctuations in plants is mediated through discrete epigenetic changes.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Evolution-guided functional analyses reveal diverse antiviral specificities encoded by IFIT1 genes in mammals

    Matthew D Daugherty et al.
    Evolutionary innovation and turnover in the IFIT1 antiviral gene family has led to diverse repertoires of antiviral specificity across mammals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cell type specificity of neurovascular coupling in cerebral cortex

    Hana Uhlirova et al.
    Excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons drive parallel vasodilatory pathways, while vasoconstriction is mediated exclusively by inhibition acting via Neuropeptide Y binding to Y1 receptors.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Salicylate, diflunisal and their metabolites inhibit CBP/p300 and exhibit anticancer activity

    Kotaro Shirakawa et al.
    Salicylic acid, the precursor to aspirin, is an anti-tumor agent that blocks protein acetylation.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Single molecule analysis reveals reversible and irreversible steps during spliceosome activation

    Aaron A Hoskins et al.
    Single molecule experiments reveal competition between spliceosome activation and the discard of the triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Light-induced depigmentation in planarians models the pathophysiology of acute porphyrias

    Bradford M Stubenhaus et al.
    Physiological porphyrin biosynthesis causes photosensitivity in fasted planarians, providing an experimentally tractable animal model of acute porphyrias.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication

    Iris V Hood, James M Berger
    A phage-encoded protein inhibits a bacterial replicative helicase loading factor by exploiting an internal site that auto-regulates loader self-assembly and ATPase activity.
    1. Cancer biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Secretion of protein disulphide isomerase AGR2 confers tumorigenic properties

    Delphine Fessart et al.
    Epithelial tumors secrete the ER-resident AGR2 in the extracellular matrix to function as a novel essential microenvironmental regulator of epithelial tissue architecture, which leads to tumorigenicity.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Tumor suppression in basal keratinocytes via dual non-cell-autonomous functions of a Na,K-ATPase beta subunit

    Julia Hatzold et al.
    A Na,K-ATPase beta subunit can suppress basal cell carcinogenesis either via its osmoregulatory function to avoid hypotonic stress, or by promoting epithelial polarity and adhesiveness of basal keratinocytes from the overlying outer layer.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Thousands of novel translated open reading frames in humans inferred by ribosome footprint profiling

    Anil Raj et al.
    Over 7,000 novel translated sequences have been identified from human cells, including several hundred in annotated noncoding RNA, pseudogenes and de novo assembled transcripts.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    TissueMiner: A multiscale analysis toolkit to quantify how cellular processes create tissue dynamics

    Raphaël Etournay et al.
    A computational framework called TissueMiner, complete with tutorials, will allow a wide range of users to perform quantitative multiscale analysis of tissue morphogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural basis for the spatial suppression of visual motion perception

    Liu D Liu et al.
    The paradoxical spatial suppression of visual motion perception can result from a trade-off between sensitivity and noise in sensory neuron populations.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Mapping replication dynamics in Trypanosoma brucei reveals a link with telomere transcription and antigenic variation

    Rebecca Devlin et al.
    Mapping DNA replication timing, allied to genetic analysis of a RecQ repair helicase, reveals that antigenic variation in the African trypanosome may be initiated by locus-specific, replication-derived sequence instability.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Structure of a Holliday junction complex reveals mechanisms governing a highly regulated DNA transaction

    Gurunathan Laxmikanthan et al.
    The structure of a multi-protein DNA recombination reaction intermediate reveals how regulation is achieved by protein-mediated DNA wrapping around a core enzyme-substrate complex.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 controls traffic of Neuroligin 1 and Synaptotagmin 4 to regulate retrograde signaling

    Kathryn P Harris et al.
    Syntaxin 4 regulates retrograde signaling in the postsynaptic compartment at Drosophila synapses by controlling trafficking of Neuroligin and Synaptotagmin 4 cargo.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    NOVA regulates Dcc alternative splicing during neuronal migration and axon guidance in the spinal cord

    Janelle C Leggere et al.
    Alternative splicing of the Dcc gene, which is controlled by the NOVA RNA-binding proteins, is crucial during neuronal migration and axon guidance.
    1. Biochemistry

    Adenosine diphosphate restricts the protein remodeling activity of the Hsp104 chaperone to Hsp70 assisted disaggregation

    Agnieszka Kłosowska et al.
    Hsp70 chaperone provides Hsp104 with high efficiency in disaggregation and specificity towards aggregated substrates at the, otherwise limiting, cellular concentrations of adenine nucleotides.
    1. Neuroscience

    Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Ingrid Hums et al.
    Peptidergic neurons regulate undulation and turning movements to enable Caenorhabditis elegans to gradually adjust its locomotion strategy from dispersal to local search.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    PHF13 is a molecular reader and transcriptional co-regulator of H3K4me2/3

    Ho-Ryun Chung et al.
    PHF13 interacts with transcriptional complexes containing RNA polymerase II to recruit/stabilize them at H3K4me2/3 containing active or bivalent promoters.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    A bend, flip and trap mechanism for transposon integration

    Elizabeth R Morris et al.
    Structural and biochemical analyses of a eukaryotic DNA transpososome in the integration step reveal how mariner/Tc1 transposons are selectively integrated into a TA target sequence.
    1. Neuroscience

    NOVA2-mediated RNA regulation is required for axonal pathfinding during development

    Yuhki Saito et al.
    The RNA-binding protein NOVA2 coordinately regulates the alternative splicing of key components in axon guidance and outgrowth pathways, with severe functional consequences.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The anti-tubercular drug delamanid as a potential oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis

    Stephen Patterson et al.
    Biological and pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the anti-tubercular drug, delamanid, could be repurposed for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Optical electrophysiology for probing function and pharmacology of voltage-gated ion channels

    Hongkang Zhang et al.
    Optogenetic tools enable sophisticated measurements of a voltage-gated sodium channel implicated in pain, as well as high-throughput screening of candidate channel blockers.
    1. Ecology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Comparative genomics explains the evolutionary success of reef-forming corals

    Debashish Bhattacharya et al.
    The analysis of 20 coral genomic datasets provides unprecedented insights into what makes reef-building corals unique, including the evolution of novel gene families involved in biomineralization, signaling and stress responses that have led to their evolutionary success throughout the Phanerozoic Eon.
    1. Neuroscience

    Gap junction networks in mushroom bodies participate in visual learning and memory in Drosophila

    Qingqing Liu et al.
    Gap junctions exist in Kenyon cells and Kenyon cell-mushroom body output neuron neural networks, and are also critical in visual learning and memory in Drosophila.
    1. Neuroscience

    Long-range population dynamics of anatomically defined neocortical networks

    Jerry L Chen et al.
    A new microscopy system allows the activity of interconnected neurons in different brain regions to be measured simultaneously.
    1. Neuroscience

    Multisensory integration in the developing tectum is constrained by the balance of excitation and inhibition

    Daniel L Felch et al.
    During development, the Xenopus brain improves its ability to discern specific time intervals between sensory inputs of different modalities via the maturation of inhibitory circuits.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cell-specific synaptic plasticity induced by network oscillations

    Shota Zarnadze et al.
    Recordings of cellular and network activities of the mouse brain provide insights into how gamma rhythms contribute to memory formation.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Cytoplasmic NOTCH and membrane-derived β-catenin link cell fate choice to epithelial-mesenchymal transition during myogenesis

    Daniel Sieiro et al.
    In chick skeletal muscle, an incoming signal leads to two interdependent outcomes: a cell fate change and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Time-resolved studies define the nature of toxic IAPP intermediates, providing insight for anti-amyloidosis therapeutics

    Andisheh Abedini et al.
    Toxic IAPP intermediates have some molecular features that are similar to, and others that are distinct from, toxic species reported for other amyloidogenic polypeptides.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Spontaneous mutations and the origin and maintenance of quantitative genetic variation

    Wen Huang et al.
    Whole genome DNA sequence analysis, genome wide gene expression and complex organismal phenotypes in Drosophila mutation accumulation lines provide a robust estimate of the spontaneous mutation rate and mutational effects.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The endoplasmic reticulum, not the pH gradient, drives calcium refilling of lysosomes

    Abigail G Garrity et al.
    The endoplasmic reticulum serves as a direct and primary source of calcium ions for the lysosome.
    1. Ecology
    2. Neuroscience

    Olfactory channels associated with the Drosophila maxillary palp mediate short- and long-range attraction

    Hany KM Dweck et al.
    Drosophila's second nose, the maxillary palp, is involved in short- and long-range attraction.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains

    Xiaoxia Liu et al.
    Munc13 C-terminal domains synergize to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Spatial organization shapes the turnover of a bacterial transcriptome

    Jeffrey R Moffitt et al.
    Transcriptome-scale RNA imaging and lifetime measurements reveal that the E. coli transcriptome is spatially organized and that this organization modulates the post-transcriptional fate of bacterial mRNAs.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies

    Jonathan CY Tang et al.
    A straightforward, rapid and generalizable strategy uses modified nanobodies to convert intracellular protein detection into desired biological activities in cells and animals.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Premature polyadenylation of MAGI3 produces a dominantly-acting oncogene in human breast cancer

    Thomas K Ni, Charlotte Kuperwasser
    The study of a recurrent breast cancer MAGI3 truncation reveals the role of MAGI3 in regulating the Hippo effector YAP and highlights premature mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation as a mechanism underlying cancer development.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Simple biophysics underpins collective conformations of the intrinsically disordered proteins of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Andrei Vovk et al.
    Simple biophysical considerations explain the collective behavior of molecularly diverse complex protein assemblies that regulate transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic organisms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Loss of presenilin function is associated with a selective gain of APP function

    Carole Deyts et al.
    Amyloid precursor protein expression and accumulation of its intracellular fragment are required for exuberant neurite outgrowth associated with pathological presenilin 1 loss-of-function mutations before the emergence of amyloid burden in mice.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Compaction and segregation of sister chromatids via active loop extrusion

    Anton Goloborodko et al.
    Loop extrusion can robustly compact, segregate and disentangle mammalian chromosomes, suggesting it is a universal mechanism of genome folding during cell division.
    1. Cancer biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Mitochondrial genetic diversity, selection and recombination in a canine transmissible cancer

    Andrea Strakova et al.
    Genetics of a canine transmissible tumour show how the world’s oldest cancer “metastasised” through the global dog population – and captured, maintained and rearranged its mitochondrial DNA along the way.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    A feedback amplification loop between stem cells and their progeny promotes tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis

    Jun Chen et al.
    A newly discovered feedback amplification loop between stem cells and their immediate daughter progenitor cells drives epithelial regeneration and tumor development.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Ca2+ entry into neurons is facilitated by cooperative gating of clustered CaV1.3 channels

    Claudia M Moreno et al.
    CaV1.3 channels of the short isoform are coupled via their C-terminal domains in a Ca2+-CaM-dependent manner, which facilitates Ca2+ influx and increases the discharge of hippocampal neurons.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cell Biology

    Hedgehog signaling is a potent regulator of liver lipid metabolism and reveals a GLI-code associated with steatosis

    Madlen Matz-Soja et al.
    The Hedgehog signalling pathway is a master regulator of lipid metabolic processes and their zonation in the adult liver of mice and humans.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    The Drosophila HNF4 nuclear receptor promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial function in adults

    William E Barry, Carl S Thummel
    Drosophila HNF4 directs a developmental switch at the onset of adulthood that suppresses diabetes by promoting mitochondrial function and supporting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
    1. Neuroscience

    Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice

    Panayiotis Tsokas et al.
    The enzyme PKMzeta is crucial for the maintenance of long-term memories, but a closely related enzyme provides a back-up should PKMzeta fail, thus explaining the controversy over why deleting the gene for PKMzeta may not appear to impair memory.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Dynamic NF-κB and E2F interactions control the priority and timing of inflammatory signalling and cell proliferation

    John M Ankers et al.
    Cell imaging and mathematical modelling show reciprocal cross-regulation between inflammatory signalling and cell cycle timing, which is mediated through functional interactions between NF-B and E2F proteins.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Viruses are a dominant driver of protein adaptation in mammals

    David Enard et al.
    Viruses drive adaptation at the scale of the whole proteome and not only in antiviral proteins in mammalian hosts.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells

    Unipolar distributions of junctional Myosin II identify cell stripe boundaries that drive cell intercalation throughout Drosophila axis extension

    Robert J Tetley et al.
    Analysing Myosin II unipolar planar polarisation with high spatial and temporal resolution during Drosophila axis extension reveals how tissue boundaries drive polarized cell intercalation while limiting cell mixing.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Two-way communication between SecY and SecA suggests a Brownian ratchet mechanism for protein translocation

    William John Allen et al.
    Evidence is presented that supports a completely new, diffusion-driven mechanism for transporting proteins across membranes in bacteria.
    1. Cancer biology
    2. Cell Biology

    ERG signaling in prostate cancer is driven through PRMT5-dependent methylation of the Androgen Receptor

    Zineb Mounir et al.
    The transcription factor ERG recruits the PRMT5 enzyme to methylate the androgen receptor, presenting a post-translational regulatory mechanism that could be therapeutically exploited to control cell proliferation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Quorum sensing control of Type VI secretion factors restricts the proliferation of quorum-sensing mutants

    Charlotte Majerczyk et al.
    Quorum-sensing control of Burkholderia thailandensis toxin and immunity pairs serves to police quorum-sensing mutants and may represent a general strategy whereby cooperators can police mutants.
    1. Cancer biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine marks regions with reduced mutation frequency in human DNA

    Marketa Tomkova et al.
    Different types of epigenetic DNA modifications affect the likelihood of cytosine mutations in cancer.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Zeb1 controls neuron differentiation and germinal zone exit by a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition

    Shalini Singh et al.
    Neuronal progenitor cells autonomously inhibit polarization via the transcription factor Zeb1.
    1. Neuroscience

    Massive normalization of olfactory bulb output in mice with a 'monoclonal nose'

    Benjamin Roland et al.
    Inhibitory circuits in the olfactory bulb can amplify or suppress sensory inputs over a wide range of intensities to generate robust mitral cell output.
    1. Neuroscience

    The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system

    Matthew E Berck et al.
    The complete neural circuit map of a tractable olfactory system will support studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Andrew Lutas et al.
    Basal ganglia output neurons use the NALCN leak channel to maintain their characteristic tonic firing, and this channel is important for the modulation of firing by metabolic or receptor-mediated signals.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel

    Feng Zhang et al.
    Vanilloid sensitivity has been introduced into the TRPV2 channel, revealing that the gating and permeation properties of this enigmatic TRP channel are remarkably similar to the capsaicin receptor.
    1. Genes and Chromosomes

    Histone H2B ubiquitylation represses gametogenesis by opposing RSC-dependent chromatin remodeling at the ste11 master regulator locus

    Philippe Materne et al.
    Building on previous work (Materne et al., 2015), it is shown that the ubiquitylation of histone H2B represses cell differentiation by opposing chromatin remodeling at the promoter of the master regulator of gametogenesis, ste11
    1. Neuroscience

    Instructed knowledge shapes feedback-driven aversive learning in striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, but not the amygdala

    Lauren Y Atlas et al.
    While the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex learn about threats through verbal warnings, the amygdala learns only from direct experience, suggesting that the amygdala forms part of a specialized threat detection system.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Dynamic curvature regulation accounts for the symmetric and asymmetric beats of Chlamydomonas flagella

    Pablo Sartori et al.
    The self-organised beat of cilia and flagella is dynamically regulated by curvature.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Many-molecule encapsulation by an icosahedral shell

    Jason D Perlmutter et al.
    Computational and theoretical models reveal mechanisms by which protein compartments assemble around enzymes and reagents to facilitate reactions in bacteria, allowing the identification of strategies for reengineering such compartments as customizable nanoreactors.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Opposing roles of nuclear receptor HNF4α isoforms in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer

    Karthikeyani Chellappa et al.
    Proper gut health depends on the balance between two naturally occurring variants of a transcription factor in the colon.
    1. Cell Biology

    Spatial signals link exit from mitosis to spindle position

    Jill Elaine Falk et al.
    In yeast, exit from mitosis is triggered by the movement of one spindle pole body out of the mother cell into the bud, the future daughter cell.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology

    Joyonna Carrie Gamble-George et al.
    Mechanistically distinct COX-2 inhibitors reduce stress-induced behavioral pathology via unique multimodal molecular mechanisms, and could be used to treat mood disorders.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    Discovery and validation of sub-threshold genome-wide association study loci using epigenomic signatures

    Xinchen Wang et al.
    Epigenomic signatures overlapping disease-associated variants from genome-wide association studies help prioritize new variants in sub-threshold loci whose biological relevance is experimentally confirmed.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    Punctuated evolution and transitional hybrid network in an ancestral cell cycle of fungi

    Edgar M Medina et al.
    Cell cycle network evolution in a fungal ancestor was punctuated by the arrival of a viral DNA-binding protein that was permanently incorporated into the regulatory network controlling cell cycle entry.
    1. Neuroscience

    Electrical and Ca2+ signaling in dendritic spines of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons

    Travis A Hage et al.
    Dopaminergic cells uniquely receive input from a roughly equal mixture of synapses on dendritic spines and synapses formed directly on dendrites.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Ensemble cryo-EM uncovers inchworm-like translocation of a viral IRES through the ribosome

    Priyanka D Abeyrathne et al.
    An ensemble of cryo-EM structures reveals how eukaryotic elongation factor 2 positions the first codon of a viral mRNA for translation.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Neuroscience

    Adult axolotls can regenerate original neuronal diversity in response to brain injury

    Ryoji Amamoto et al.
    Upon injury, the regeneration of the adult axolotl brain rebuilds neuronal diversity, but alters the original long-distance circuitry and tissue architecture.
    1. Neuroscience

    An inhibitory corticostriatal pathway

    Crystal Rock et al.
    The discovery of somatostatin-positive inhibitory neurons projecting from mouse cortex to striatum shows that corticostriatal pathways are not exclusively excitatory.
    1. Cell Biology

    A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes

    Yuliya Gryaznova et al.
    Daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulation is important in mitotic exit and spindle position checkpoint control.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Structural characterization of ribosome recruitment and translocation by type IV IRES

    Jason Murray et al.
    A Internal Ribosomal Entry Site RNA has been visualised by high resolution cryoEM, trapped in the ribosome in an intermediate state of translocation.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    Benjamin M Stormo, Donald T Fox
    Mitosis of reduplicated chromosomes is under careful regulation and can be perfectly executed.
    1. Neuroscience

    Perception as a closed-loop convergence process

    Ehud Ahissar, Eldad Assa
    Perception is proposed to be a dynamic motor-sensory closed-loop process in which information flows through the environment and the brain in continuous loops, converging towards steady-state percepts.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct modes of endocytotic presynaptic membrane and protein uptake at the calyx of Held terminal of rats and mice

    Yuji Okamoto et al.
    Capacitance measurements and pH imaging reveal distinct modes of uptake for endocytotic presynaptic membrane and proteins.
    1. Neuroscience

    Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation

    Rosa Maria Sanchez Panchuelo et al.
    The combination of intraneural microstimulation and 7T fMRI makes it possible to bridge the gap between first-order mechanoreceptive afferent input codes and their spatial, dynamic and perceptual representations in human cortex.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Quantitative perturbation-based analysis of gene expression predicts enhancer activity in early Drosophila embryo

    Rupinder Sayal et al.
    Mathematical modeling of mutagenesis data for a suite of enhancers uncovers new relationships between the binding sites of transcription factors that help in genome-wide prediction of enhancers.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Biophysics and Structural Biology

    Allosteric modulation in monomers and oligomers of a G protein-coupled receptor

    Rabindra V Shivnaraine et al.
    Allosteric modulation in the M2 muscarinic receptor derives from a mix of interactions within and between the protomers of an oligomer.
    1. Developmental Biology and Stem Cells
    2. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    An ancient yet flexible cis-regulatory architecture allows localized Hedgehog tuning by patched/Ptch1

    David S Lorberbaum et al.
    The seemingly simple, constitutive response of the patched/Ptch1 gene to Hedgehog signaling is in fact regulated by large batteries of context-specific Hedgehog-responsive enhancers in both fly and mouse, allowing tissue-specific tuning of the Hedgehog pathway in animal development and evolution.
    1. Cell Biology

    Tethering of an E3 ligase by PCM1 regulates the abundance of centrosomal KIAA0586/Talpid3 and promotes ciliogenesis

    Lei Wang et al.
    Ciliogenesis is regulated by a certain group of centriolar satellite proteins, among which an E3 ligase is tethered by PCM1 to maintain the normal level of pro-ciliogenic protein on centrioles.
    1. Biochemistry
    2. Cancer biology

    Set7 mediated Gli3 methylation plays a positive role in the activation of Sonic Hedgehog pathway in mammals

    Lin Fu et al.
    Methylation of Gli3 by Set7 enhances the activation of Hedgehog signaling and contributes to tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Plant Biology

    Hawkmoths evaluate scenting flowers with the tip of their proboscis

    Alexander Haverkamp et al.
    Building on previous work (Kessler et al., 2015), it is shown that long-tongued hawkmoths assess individual flowers by smelling floral odors with olfactory neurons on their proboscises, and that this close-range perception is crucial for successful pollination and foraging.
    1. Neuroscience

    Lip movements entrain the observers’ low-frequency brain oscillations to facilitate speech intelligibility

    Hyojin Park et al.
    Rhythms of lip movements entrain low-frequency brain oscillations and facilitate audiovisual speech processing.
    1. Genomics and Evolutionary Biology

    The genetic basis for ecological adaptation of the Atlantic herring revealed by genome sequencing

    Alvaro Martinez Barrio et al.
    Whole genome sequencing of 19 populations of Atlantic and Baltic herring reveals hundreds of individual loci underlying adaptation to a low salinity niche or timing of reproduction.
    1. Biophysics and Structural Biology
    2. Genes and Chromosomes

    RNA Polymerase II cluster dynamics predict mRNA output in living cells

    Won-Ki Cho et al.
    Quantitative super resolution imaging, in live mammalian cells, reveals a direct relationship between protein clustering dynamics and the number of mRNA transcribed at an endogenous gene locus.
    1. Neuroscience

    An extrasynaptic GABAergic signal modulates a pattern of forward movement in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Yu Shen et al.
    The activity of a set of GABAergic neurons is causally linked with a locomotory pattern in moving animals, and the mechanisms underlying the neuromodulatory role of GABA are illuminated.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A novel synaptic plasticity rule explains homeostasis of neuromuscular transmission

    Gilles Ouanounou et al.
    Skeletal muscle cells constantly monitor their own activity and that of their partner neuron at synapses, enabling them to provide the neuron with feedback regarding neurotransmitter release.
    1. Neuroscience

    Critical role for the mediodorsal thalamus in permitting rapid reward-guided updating in stochastic reward environments

    Subhojit Chakraborty et al.
    In monkeys, the integrity of the magnocellular subdivision of mediodorsal thalamus is important when using recent rewarded choices to promote persistence with a recently sampled choice during changing or uncertain reward guided-learning and decision-making tasks.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Synaptic pruning in the female hippocampus is triggered at puberty by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on dendritic spines

    Sonia Afroz et al.
    Extrasynaptic GABAA receptors that emerge at puberty trigger adolescent synaptic pruning; pruning is prevented and cognition is impaired if the receptors are absent.

Magazine

    1. Neuroscience

    Microbiome: Does the brain listen to the gut?

    Thomas Kuntz, Jack Gilbert
    1. Human Biology and Medicine

    Diabetes: Partners for life

    Lena Eliasson, Anna Wendt
    1. Neuroscience

    Memory: Forget me not

    Richard GM Morris
  1. Working Lives

    Working Lives: A Series of Interviews

    Curated by Emma Pewsey
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural Circuits: Decoding obesity in the brainstem

    Jonathan Cedernaes, Joseph Bass