Exposing male mice to nicotine or cocaine enables their male offspring to cope with high doses of either, which suggests that such paternal effects are generic, rather than being a response to a specific type of stress.
An integrated biochemical and evolutionary analysis shows how enzyme specificity evolves after gene loss during genome decay, implicating relaxation of purifying selection as a driving force for functional divergence.
A new statistical approach identifies non-coding regulatory regions of genes as driver candidates with recurrent mutations across cancer samples that associate with gene expression, patient survival or mutational phenotype.
The CDC25 family protein phosphatase Mih1 promotes downregulation of cell surface proteins in budding yeast by dephosphorylating a subunit of the retromer complex, which mediates plasma membrane recycling.
Activated macrophages initiate a robust DNA damage response that depends on type I IFN and regulates their genetic program and inflammasome activation, establishing a mechanistic link between DNA damage responses and innate immunity.
The tripartite drug efflux pump AcrA-AcrB-TolC, representative of a wide group of pumps from Gram-negative bacteria, enters a transport-competent state through long-distance conformational changes that switch the channel from a closed to an open state.
The remarkable lifelong stability of mechanotransducing stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells depends on the activity of the transduction ion channels located at the tips of these mechanosensory projections.
Obligate intracellular Chlamydia secrete a deubiquitinating enzyme (Cdu1) into the membrane of the Chlamydia-containing vacuole to deubiquitinate selected host proteins and support the survival of the bacteria during genital infection.
The somatosensory cortex doesn't integrate mixed bilateral inputs, as partially uncrossing projections from the whiskers duplicates their representation by segregating lateralized inputs from each side of the head.
An unbiased transcriptomic approach reveals that developing paddlefish electrosensory organs express genes essential for mechanosensory hair cell development and synaptic transmission, and identifies candidates for mediating electroreceptor development and function.
PLK-1/2-mediated SYP-4 phosphorylation is dependent on crossover precursor formation, triggering a switch in the dynamic state of the synaptonemal complex that reduces the formation of further double-strand breaks at late meiotic prophase.
The CMG complex, the replicative helicase in eukaryotes, uses a different mechanism from bacterial and viral helicases by engaging both strands of parental DNA with substantial force and unwinding the duplex within the central channel of CMG.
Mutations in budding yeast modeled after cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations lead to stabilization of heterochromatin and enhanced gene silencing through inhibition of specific histone demethylases by the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate.
Combining light microscopy and electron microscopy uncovered patterns of neural connectivity in a zebra finch forebrain region capable of generating song-related sequential activity, contributing to our understanding of the neural circuitry that underlies skilled motor performance.
Post-translational modification of histone H3K36 is not required to suppress cryptic transcription initiation or to include alternative exons in Drosophila; instead it promotes expression of active genes by stimulating polyadenylation.
Structural models of the chromatin remodeling enzyme Chd1 in solution and when bound to chromatin indicate that conformational changes to both the enzyme and the nucleosome occur upon nucleotide dependent engagement.
Although sugar-sensing taste neurons typically promote feeding, a taste neuron in the Drosophila pharynx limits feeding via the IR60b receptor; thus, revealing a new element in the circuit logic of feeding control.
As in humans, Drosophila hearts are able to maintain contractile performance during healthy aging, but this maintenance is associated with an increased susceptibility to progressive dysrhythmias that can lead to fibrillatory arrest.
Soon after fertilisation, a critical portion of the embryonic genome is switched on through the actions of maternally inherited Stella, in part through controlling the activation of transposable elements.
Recordings from serotonin-producing neurons in the brain reveal that these neurons are highly activated by sudden changes in previously familiar environments, potentially explaining why serotonin is important for learning to adapt to such changes.
In contrast to current knowledge that predicts that apicomplexan actin is unconventional, use of Chromobodies demonstrate that Toxoplasma F-actin forms a long, stable, highly dynamic tubular network that is required for material transfer and parasite maturation.
Molecular signals from chloroplasts can synergistically interact with the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate non-canonical signaling pathways mediating fundamental cellular processes including stomatal closure, seed dormancy and germination.
After DNA replication, nucleosomes are assembled by two histone chaperone complexes each bound to an H3-H4 histone dimer, suggesting the feasibility for a semi-conservative mode of epigenome inheritance.
The CAF1 complex binds single histone H3-H4 dimers, and two such complexes associate with extended DNA elements to ensure the deposition of H3-H4 tetramers, the first step in the assembly of nucleosomes.
Phosphorylated translation initiation factor eIF2, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, is also inhibitory to protein synthesis when bound to GTP and initiator tRNA broadening the reach and immediacy of eIF2-mediated control.
PCGF6 links sequence specific target recognition by the MAX/MGA transcription factor complex to PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) -dependent transcriptional silencing of germ cell-specific genes in mouse pluripotent stem cells.
Stalling spliceosome assembly at a novel step before Bact complex formation reveals new insights into the extensive RNP rearrangements and compositional changes that accompany the intricate process of spliceosome activation.
Allosteric reorganizations of a bacterial channel receptor are mapped along the protein structure, using the site-directed bimane quenching fluorescence technique, through parallel real-time conformational and electrophysiological recordings.
Gene expression changes associated with polymorphisms in non-coding sequences of the flowering time regulator FLM directly influence flowering time in ambient temperature in Arabidopsis over an extended vegetative period.
Externally induced synchronous/desynchronous oscillations during working memory performance reveal distinct patterns of brain activity and connectivity across large-scale networks recruited by the task.
Male C. elegans die through two distinct mechanisms – mating-induced germline activation, and potent male pheromone toxicity – but the latter is unique to males of androdioecious species (made up of hermaphrodites and males).
p27Kip1 directly controls invadopodia turnover by promoting the interaction of PAK1 with Cortactin, which induces Cortactin phosphorylation, invadopodia disassembly and facilitates invasion through extracellular matrix.
The chromatin remodeller BRG1 is recruited to pluripotency-associated gene regulatory elements by the pioneer transcription factor OCT4 to support further transcription factor binding and gene regulation.
Live imaging coupled with cell lineage tracing in chick and mouse embryos reveal that the cardiac regulatory gene Nkx2.5 is also transiently expressed in early extra-cardiac hemogenic angioblasts that migrate to the heart, yolk sac and dorsal aorta.
Sin1, a regulatory subunit of TOR protein kinase, has an evolutionarily conserved domain that specifically binds and recruits substrate for phosphorylation, and may represent a potential target for anti-cancer drugs.
Live-cell imaging, genetic analysis and electron cryomicroscopy identify structural motifs involved in the differential assembly of Pol I-Rrn3 complexes and Pol I homodimers in response to nutrient availability.
Spatially coordinated apical constriction occurs during Drosophila salivary gland invagination, but the salivary gland can form fully internalized and elongated tubes even when this process is completely blocked.
Cell fate-mapping with genetically-modified mouse models and cellular markers demonstrates that sensory hair cells in the vestibular portion of the inner ear are a dynamic population in adult mice that undergo cell death and replacement under normal conditions.
The ion channel accessory subunit KChIP2 has a transcriptional role that provides regulation over miRNA targets, driving the adverse remodeling of key ion channels during cardiac stress and leading to the development of arrhythmia.
The rhoptry protein RhopH3 is crucial for the invasion and growth of the malaria parasite and disruption of it provides insight into the binding of the parasite to the host red blood cell and into the formation of new import pathways.
A field study coupled with a molecular analysis demonstrates that using hematophagous flies as 'flying syringes' could be used to investigate blood-borne pathogen diversity in wild vertebrates and act as an early detection tool of zoonotic pathogens.
Promoter interactome maps in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and ESC-derived early neuroectodermal progenitors link distal enhancers to putative target genes, reveal lineage-specific cis-regulatory architecture and shed light on the logic of gene regulation by multiple enhancers.
The ion channel genealogy resource is a comprehensive and intuitive comparison tool for ion channel models and experimental data, helping to visualize their similarity and function to facilitate better experimentally-constrained modeling.
Building on previous work (Metzen et al., 2016), a combination of neurophysiological and behavioral approaches reveals that changes in the background strongly impacts invariant coding and perception of behaviourally relevant signals.
Building on previous work (Felch et al., 2016), it is shown that inverse effectiveness, a central property of multisensory integration, in the optic tectum is mediated by the activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors, resulting in a response greater than the sum of responses to each individual sensory modality.
Building on previous work (Syrjänen, Pellegrini, & Davies, 2014), it is shown that SYCP3 contributes to the architecture of meiotic chromosomes through local bridging interactions that result in large-scale compaction of the chromosome axis.
Building on previous work (Fung et al., 2015), the structures of eight new nuclear export signal (NES) peptides bound to Exportin CRM1 are reported, revealing striking diversity in NES structures, a small conserved secondary structural element, and a CRM1 residue that functions as a selectivity filter.