An EASAC working group on genome editing recommends that regulators should focus on specific applications of these new techniques rather than attempting to regulate genome editing itself as a new technology.
Map-like organisations of relational knowledge can be extracted from the hippocampal-entorhinal system in situations where relationships are non-spatial rather than spatial, discrete rather than continuous, and unavailable to conscious awareness.
Extensive molecular dynamics simulations enhanced by advanced sampling techniques give a detailed view of p38α canonical activation mechanism, which reveals novel key electrostatic interactions that are put in context of existing experimental data.
The motor that drives preproteins into the mitochondrial matrix is coupled to the translocase by Tim44, a two-domain scaffold protein with an intrinsically disordered "dynamic arm" and a structurally stable anchoring domain.
Heritable mutations tend to occur within different DNA sequence contexts in different human populations, suggesting that DNA replication and repair often change in efficacy over only a few hundred generations of evolution.
Two seemingly distinct cellular stress response pathways that contribute to neurodegeneration after axonal insults are now revealed to be under the control of a single master regulator of the neuronal injury response, the kinase DLK.
Connectomic analysis identifies the complex circuits of a visual motion-sensing neuron that qualify them to generate direction-selective motion sensing signals using both Hassenstein-Reichardt and Barlow-Levick models.
The iRhom2 protein, a catalytically inactive relative of rhomboid proteases, controls inflammation and growth factor signalling by acting as an essential multifunctional regulatory subunit of the cell surface shedding protease TACE (ADAM17).
In central synapses, the mobility and supply of synaptic vesicles are determined by two independent biological factors: the morphological and structural organization of nerve terminals and the molecular signature of vesicles.
Phosphorylation of ezrin involves an unusual mechanism requiring coincident binding to PIP2 and involvement of the non-catalytic domain to gain access to the phosphorylation site thereby restricting selective phosphorylation to the plasma membrane.
The combination of ceritinib with CGM097 demonstrates remarkable antitumor activity in TP53 wild-type neuroblastoma models with ALK aberrations and is able to overcome the resistance acquired during ceritinib treatment.
Conditional genetic inactivation of a highly conserved, ancestral subgroup of 14-3-3 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals fundamental roles in auxin transport-dependent plant development and post-Golgi trafficking processes.
Transcription factors that specify the identity of individual neuron types via activating terminal differentiation gene batteries also restrict cellular plasticity via altering the chromatin landscape.
The powerful computational operation of sequence recognition on behavioral timescales of approximately 1 s may emerge from synaptic activity-triggered build-up of biochemical waves in short 20 micron zones on dendrites.
The clonal oriented cell dynamics enables directional expansion and accurate scaling of sheet-like or rod-like cartilaginous elements and uncouples the mechanisms of elongation from thickness or diameter control.
A post-lysosomal cholesterol transport inhibitor reveals how the endoplasmic reticulum membrane regulates total cellular cholesterol by constantly monitoring a critical pool of cholesterol in the plasma membrane.
A structural model of the dynamic complex comprising the histone reader RNF169 bound to an ubiquitylated nucleosome core particle reveals a three-pronged binding mechanism, which provides specificity for the recognition of DNA double-strand break sites.
The coding sequences of a very highly conserved family of neurogenic transcription factors from different species have evolved to generate proteins that have different life times causing them to display quantitatively different neural induction potentials.
Rats exposed to a single stressful event experience days-long constitutive activation of the kappa opioid receptor at inhibitory synapses in part of the brain’s reward system, which increases their drug-seeking behavior.
Systematic analyses of natural variants and artificial mutants establish functional landscapes of BRCA1 for homology-directed repair (HDR) and therapy resistance and identify the BRCA1-PALB2 interaction as a key control point for HDR pathway choice.
The complex chromatin-based genomic regulatory system controlling developmental gene expression in complex bilaterians predates the evolution of morphological complexity and may have been a prerequisite for the evolution of the first simple multicellular animals.
Neuronal recordings from rat visual cortex reveal an object-processing pathway, along which neuronal representations become increasingly capable of supporting recognition of visual objects in spite of variation in their appearance.
The developmental axon guidance receptor roundabout 2 maintains inhibitory synaptic connectivity in the adult brain; demonstrating continued essential function of this receptor in regulating synaptic function in the CNS.
Upon AMPK activation by acute glucose restriction, Atg14p shifts its distribution from ER exit sites to liquid-ordered membrane domains on the vacuolar surface where, together with Atg6p, it facilitates LD-specific autophagy (i.e., microautophagy of lipid droplets) for energy production and long-term survival of starved cells.
La-related protein 1 specifically and directly binds the 5' cap and first nucleotide of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and translation factors, inhibiting the assembly of translation initiation factors on these messages and therefore their translation.
Different features of an odor can be represented in mouse olfactory cortex using the particular ensemble of responsive neurons to represent odor identity and the synchrony of the ensemble activity to represent odor intensity.
A cryo-electron microscopy structure of a substrate-bound Vps4-Vta1 AAA ATPase reveals an asymmetric hexameric ring and suggests how nucleotide-induced changes in subunit interfaces translocate polypeptides into the central pore.
Teaching signals from "tutor" brain areas should be adapted to the plasticity mechanisms in "student" areas to achieve efficient learning in two-stage systems such as the vocal control circuit of the songbird.
Somatostatin-expressing interneurons of the rodent dentate gyrus fall into at least two functionally distinct interneuron types with different synaptic integrations into the local dentate gyrus and the more distant medial septum neuronal network.
The circadian clock of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 schedules the activity of the transcription factor RpaA, which controls key events in carbon metabolism that contribute to cell fitness in conditions mimicking the natural environment.
The intracellular location of a key sulfur compound, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, was identified in microalgae and its subsequent uptake by marine bacteria was quantified using a combination of secondary-ion mass-spectrometry techniques.
Disrupting the activity of the medial lateral face patch (ML) using fMRI-targeted microinjections of muscimol leads to anatomically and categorically specific impairments in a naturalistic face detection task.
One minute biotinylation with APEX2 peroxidase in living cells identifies established and new components of mitochondrial and ER membranes; dataset intersection and overexpression screen identifies SYNJ2BP overexpression as inducing mitochondria-rough ER contacts.
Building on previous work (Doroquez et al., 2014), it is shown that the centriole core of the basal body degenerates, but the outer wall remodels to template the ciliary axoneme in a subset of C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons.