AGRP neurons integrate environmental food-related cues with internal metabolic signals to modulate interscapular brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy expenditure, at least in part, via mTORC1 signalling.
The Srs2 helicase functions in Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing to avoid crossover formation during homologous recombination by disrupting D-loops that are extended by DNA polymerase delta in an ATP-dependent and direction-specific manner.
A series of quantitative behavioural and opto-physiological analyses using a novel robot microscope system reveals that C. elegans computes the time-differential and time-integral of sensory information for decision-making during olfactory navigation.
A distinctive recurrent network motif in the Drosophila central brain enables neurons that encode angular velocity to shift population activity in compass neurons, thereby updating their heading representation whenever the fly turns.
Systematic and coordinated variations in morphology and connectivity can structurally tune a microcircuit's computation but non-systematic variably also exists, imparting "connection noise" that potentially limits processing performance.
Human sensory neurons may not only bridge a critical gap between drug discovery and clinical trials, but force a re-evaluation of basic assumptions about the mechanisms controlling primary afferent excitability.
The balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and a subset of octopaminergic neurons interact with the Fruitless-expressing courtship circuit to suppress sleep for sustained courtship.
Structural and functional analysis of axonal-axonal reciprocal connections between dopamine neurons and Kenyon cells provides insight into the brain computations for normal associative olfactory learning.
Independent dating techniques have established that the H. naledi fossils are between 236 and 335 thousand years old, indicating that small-brained hominins with relatively primitive body shapes co-existed with our early ancestors in Africa.
Changes in Shank gene dosage alter voltage-activated calcium current and calcium-activated gene expression in a manner that parallels the effects of human Shank copy number variation on psychiatric disease risk.
In a consumer-resource model obeying the physical requirement of flux conservation, metabolic competition between microbes yields consortia of cell types that collectively resist invasion via optimal use of resources.
Gene co-expression analysis identifies coherent transcriptional patterns driven by distinct cell types in the mouse incisor, and functional studies of candidate genes reveal how the tissues are maintained through stem cell-fueled renewal.
In invertebrate and vertebrate models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, diminished SMN protein causes Gemin3-dependent decreases in microRNA function, leading to upregulated M2 muscarinic receptor and deleterious consequences.
SNARE proteins are delivered as complexes already from the endoplasmic reticulum along the secretory pathway to the cell division plane to mediate the formation of the partitioning membrane by vesicle fusion.
Dysfunctions of myelin peroxisomes cause a lysosomal storage-like disorder associated with alterations in glial and axonal membranes, which is the likely cause of nerve impairment in peroxisomal disorders.
Introduction of single photoswitchable unnatural amino acid into a neuronal receptor provides reversible, rapid and robust control of its activity by light, representing an important contribution to the fast expanding field of optopharmacology.
A versatile invertible gene trap vector is generated and inserted into a defined genomic locus in zebrafish via homologous recombination, demonstrating an efficient genetic approach to performing conditional knockout analysis.
The neurotransmitter noradrenaline selectively modulates metacognition, the conscious insight into one's performance, but does not alter perceptual decision making, revealing that different neuromodulators affect different stages of a decision making process.
Mass spectrometry on plasma from patients with typhoid fever and other febrile disease identified and validated 24 metabolites that can distinguish typhoid from other febrile diseases, providing a new approach for typhoid diagnostics.