A comprehensive structural analysis of inhibitory murine antibody 3D11 binding to Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein reveals common mechanisms of antibody evolution in mammals against Plasmodium parasites.
The essential role of presynaptic NMDA receptors for granule cell GABAergic output elucidates the function of reciprocal spines in recurrent and possibly lateral inhibition of mitral cells during olfactory processsing.
In monkeys making decisions that balance noisy evidence and reward expectation, frontal cortical and caudate activity reflect different computational components that are related to the monkeys' strategy.
Brain natriuretic peptide supplementation can increase cardiac neovascularization in infarcted hearts by stimulating endogenous endothelial cell proliferation and proliferation of precursor cells, which will differentiate into endothelial cells.
Silencing of stem cell identity genes during progenitor commitment ensures that intermediate progenitors robustly commit to generate differentiated cell types rather than abnormal stem-cell-like cells during indirect neurogenesis.
Distinct haemocytometric parameters, including cell activation markers, combined in a prognostic score may support early identification of COVID-19 patients likely to deteriorate and thus may benefit from ICU admission.
Wnt3 accomplishes long-range distribution by extracellular diffusion controlled by expression, tissue morphology, interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and co-receptor-mediated receptor binding to regulate brain development in zebrafish embryos.
Mass spectrometry exposes a post-transcriptionally regulated reduction in protein diversity in hematopoietic stem cells, including a lack of detectable Dnmt3a protein levels despite mRNA levels comparable to progenitors.
Structure-function characterization of the EMC's cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and lumenal domains reveal features critical for terminal helix insertion and a specialized role for the lumenal domain in polytopic membrane protein biogenesis.
Transcranial low-intensity ultrasound applied in block design and at low duty cycles and longer sonication durations can safely and non-invasively suppress human motor-evoked potentials, possibly via GABA-A-mediated inhibitory pathways.
Calanoid copepods achieve efficient mate finding in turbulence through active swimming and turbulence advection, indicating that reproduction is not restricted to spatial and temporal windows of calm hydrodynamic conditions.
Lipocalin-2 is a strong predictor of hunger scores, reflects an anti-obesity response that is deregulated in severely obese subjects, and exerts an anorexigenic function with a conserved interspecies mechanism.
Time-lapse imaging and the modular recreation of host physiology reveal that alveolar epithelial cells, potential permissive infection sites for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can restrict early bacterial growth via surfactant secretion.
Combination of experimental mouse models with single-cell RNA-sequencing creates a detailed map of medullary thymic epithelial cell development and identifies a transit-amplifying population as the immediate precursor to Aire-expressing mTECs.
Systemic hypoxia model reveals the detrimental effect of hypoxia on mitochondrial biogenesis in activated T-cells and points at a new approach for improving viral resistance in patients with respiratory diseases.
The immune Synergistic/Antagonistic Interaction Learner (iSAIL) resource has the capacity to generate insight into combinatorial immunity, help guide hypothesis generation and further experimentation relevant to basic research and drug therapeutics.
Invasive electrophysiological recording measures neuronal transmembrane current timescales across human cortex, which lengthens from sensory to association regions, follows variations in ion channel expressions, and alters with behavior and aging.
Applying bioorthogonal chemistry to the zebrafish/Mycobacterium marinum model of tuberculosis reveals that the virulence lipid PDIM must spread into epithelial cells in order for mycobacteria to establish infection.
Openly available structural imaging processing pipeline for chimpanzees including registration templates and macro-anatomical parcellation shows human-like cerebral aging and medial hemispheric organization.
The first-in-class kinase inhibitor, Ibrutinib, destabilizes its autoinhibited Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) target, and a remote resistance mutation causes global structural changes that activate BTK catalytic activity.
Activity-dependent genetic labeling during behavioral learning shows Fragile-X syndrome model mice exhibit impaired hippocampal engram reactivation, and that enriched environment experience improves fear memory retrieval by enhancing engram reactivation efficacy.
Hierarchical information flow in a cortico-limbic loop between the insular cortex, central amygdala and the cholinergic basal forebrain links bodily states with environmental stimuli to guide fear and reward behavior.
There is a systematic functional organization for curvature representation in area V4 where specific curvatures are encoded by unique values (modules) from the set of systematically represented values.
The hepatic endocannabinoid/CB1R system controls the soluble leptin receptor’s expression and/or subsequent release by Trib3-induced regulation of C/EBP homologous protein levels in hepatocytes to affect leptin signaling in the liver.
Analysis of proteomic data identified protein biomarkers of aging, mortality and aging-related diseases, supporting their use to monitor aging trajectories and identify individuals at higher risk of disease.
Curvature-preferring neurons in monkey V4 cluster into 0.5-mm patches, which highlights the importance of curvature detection in visual object recognition and the key functional role of V4 in this process.
anTraX is an algorithm and software package that facilitates automated analyses of insect social behavior in species and experimental settings that are not accessible with currently existing technology.
Casein kinase 1G2 interacts with and inhibits the activation of receptor-interacting kinase 3, RIP3, in response to TNF and toll-like receptor family members and attenuates its necroptosis signaling activity.
A larger non-recombining region in sexually dimorphic primates compared to sexually monomorphic ones supports the view that sexually antagonistic mutations have influenced the evolution of sex chromosomes in primates.
Micropatterned differentiation of human ESCs generates gastrulation cell types – germ layers, extraembryonic, and primordial germ cells with primate characteristics – that show conserved sorting behaviors when dissociated and reseeded as single-cell mixture.
The structural maintenance of chromosomes complex, SMC5/6, is crucial for brain development and function as it ensures proficient DNA replication in neural progenitor cells prior to chromosome segregation.
Spatially and temporally patterned activation of the small GTPase Rho1 indicates that ventral-specific factors contribute to cell- and tissue-level behaviors during ventral furrow formation, the first step in Drosophila gastrulation.
Lymphangiogenic therapy VEGFCc156s improved angiotensin-II-induced impairments in heart function via novel mechanisms, which include transcriptional responses to alleviate inflammation and cardiac fibrosis, and systemic responses to ameliorate hypertension.
The mechanism identified here that mediates olanzapine-induced b-cell dysfunction should be considered, along with weight gain, in mitigating adverse side effects when patients with schizophrenia are prescribed olanzapine.
Sepsis-induced numerical loss of naive autoantigen-specific CD4 T cells reduces host capacity to develop autoimmune immune disease, thereby demonstrating an intriguing relationship between infection and autoimmune disease.
A simple modification of CUT&Tag chromatin profiling method provides high-quality chromatin accessibility maps and indicates that 'open' chromatin results from a transcription-coupled process at promoters and enhancers.
TRAF3, a negative regulator of noncanonical NF-κB signaling, maintains epithelial cell quiescence at confluence, and its loss triggers upregulation of immunity genes and prevents entry into G0 at high cell density.
Cryo-EM shows that the NADase activity of SARM1 is allosterically inhibited by physiological concentrations of NAD+ that stabilizes an auto-inhibited conformation of SARM1, explaining how NAD+ depletion may inflict neurodegeneration.
Evolving E. coli NfsA for enhanced chloramphenicol detoxification in the native host environment shows that eliminating substrate competition can occur rapidly, and be key to evolving a new enzymatic function.
Yeast promoters can harbor multiple natural DNA variants that influence gene expression, interact genetically, evolve under negative selection, alter transcription factor motifs, and remain challenging to predict.
eMags is an engineered photodimerizer pair for optogenetic modulation in mammalian cells that is especially suited for the manipulation of intracellular processes occurring in small volumes or subcellular organelles.
Single molecule FISH analysis defines the behavior of centromere-derived alpha-satellite transcripts in intact human cells and reveals a critical role for centromere-nucleolar contacts in repressing alpha-satellite transcription.
The function and distribution of kinesin motors on exocytotic vesicles is dissected and visualized through a combination of gene knockout experiments, high-resolution microscopy and advanced data analysis.
Optogenetic manipulation of BMP signaling indicates that diversity in BMP-dependent gene expression is not well explained by differential responses to BMP, and combinatorial signaling is a major driver of diversity.
A new software developed for high-throughput antibody, T cell receptor, and MHC repertoire analysis uncovers neutrality of the binding interface and intramolecular crosstalk as distinguishing properties of polyreactive antibodies.
Heterochromatic sequences evolve rapidly, as do ZAD-ZNF genes-encoding proteins involved in heterochromatin functions, explaining why evolutionarily dynamic ZAD-ZNF genes are more likely to be essential in Drosophila.
Exploiting virus-encoded ion channels as drug targets drove a multi-faceted approach to deriving potent small molecules targeting HCV p7, simultaneously providing new insights into its fundamental biology.
The DIAMonDS can automatically and sequentially identify time points of multiple life cycle events such as pupariation, eclosion, and death in individual flies at high temporal resolution and large scale.
TANGO1 functions as a linactant filament to stabilize shallow COPII-coated buds, and after which membrane tension regulation, possibly mediated by TANGO1-controlled membrane fusion, facilitates bud elongation for procollagen export.
High-resolution mapping of cohesin-dependent chromatin loops in the genome of budding yeast reveals evolutionarily conserved features for loop formation and cohesin residency as a determinant of loop positioning.
High-resolution GPS data revealed a quadratic relationship between group size and movement, with vulturine guineafowl groups of intermediate size exhibiting the largest home-range size and greater variation in site use.
A comprehensive literature review delineates the current knowledge of how systemic context, such as age and obesity, can impact CD8+ T cell function, anti-tumor immunity, and immunotherapy responsiveness.
The strength of frequency-tagged neural activity during perceptual filling anti-correlates with the contents of consciousness, yet positively correlates with a neural measure of attention, dissociating these often confounded brain processes.
Integrating gene expression with genetic association data provided insights into the functional relevance of genetic risk for a complex disease, thus implicating folliculin as a putative diabetic retinopathy susceptibility gene.
Novel capsaicin analogs with conserved chemistry but varying sizes were used as molecular rulers to investigate energetics of conformational changes in the ligand-binding pocket and mechanisms of TRPV1 ligand-gating.
SUMO-dependent pathway is responsible for selective repression of damaged rDNA and silencing of intact surplus units revealing an epigenetic mechanism that controls the differential expression of identical sequences in the same cell.
Generation of a human lung single nucleus ATAC-seq and single nucleus RNA-seq datasets reveals candidate cis-regulatory elements that advance knowledge on gene expression control in normal and diseased lungs.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, highly activated and dysfunctional in sepsis patients, contribute to tissue-specific cytokine responses that are protective against mortality during experimental sepsis.
Sustained TNF-α induction consolidates transcriptional memory for faster, stronger, and more sensitive subsequent induction in an active DNA demethylation-dependent manner for memory genes including CALCB, a therapeutic target for migraine.
A high-throughput functional genomics approach combining inducible CRISPR-interference and quantitative imaging yields an atlas of 'phenoprints' to guide gene function assignments, identify metabolic pathway-specific morphotypes, and inform antibiotic mechanism-of-action studies.
Substrate releasing or inhibitor binding on the intracellular side of a glutamate transporter homologue require movements of the transport domain through the lipid membrane, which undergoes adaptive deformations.
Motivation for flight and feeding behaviour requires dopamine release which depends on cholinergic stimulation and intracellular Ca2+ release from ER stores in one or two pairs of central dopaminergic neurons.
An excess of novel non-canonical subtypes of parvalbumin+ interneurons in a mouse model of classical lissencephaly, which possess non-fast-spiking physiological properties, may contribute to network hyperexcitability common in this model.
The protein translocation apparatus of the inner- (Sec) and outer-membrane (BAM) interact to form a trans-periplasmic super-complex capable of long-range, PMF-dependent conformational changes to facilitate efficient outer-membrane protein maturation.
A quantitative live imaging approach unveils that earliest neurogenic progenitors in the vertebrate retina arise from asymmetric divisions and that this asymmetry involves Notch signalling through the endocytic pathway.
Single-cell RNA analysis of brain endothelium identifies the angiogenic venous capillary subset and respective resident endothelial progenitors at the origin of CCM lesions, while arterial endothelial cells are unaffected.
A time-course of single nuclei RNA-seq of the mouse placenta identifies trophoblast subtypes and the genes, signaling events, and transcriptional networks important for their differentiation, maintenance, and function.
Atg43 serves as a selective autophagy receptor by tethering isolation membranes to mitochondria to promote mitophagy and plays a mitophagy-independent role that facilitates normal cell growth in fission yeast.
Poison acidified crops sanitize food and limit disease transmission while at the same time structuring the gut microbiota and thus contribute to the ecological and evolutionary success of formicine ants.
The RIF1-long and short splice variants show distinct ability to protect cells from replication stress by promoting 53BP1 nuclear bodies, representing the first described functional difference between the two variants.
For Drosophila melanogaster, the scent of alcohol—normally associated with preferred egg-laying sites—potentiates a male pheromone signal, thereby increasing the aggressive competition between males for the reproductive resource.
Molecular and cell biology analyses reveal novel roles of Polo-like kinases in establishing non-random segregation patterns of spindle-associated microtubule-organizing centers during mitosis, a phenomenon linked with replicative cell aging.
Graded Wnt and JAK-STAT signals regulate the division rate, AP location and differentiation of Drosophila ovarian follicle stem cells to define a domain of stem cells maintained by population asymmetry.
Tracking fluorescent fusion proteins in competent pneumococcal cells reveals a polar hub for competence regulation, with the alternative sigma factor σX relocalizing DprA to this hub to mediate competence shut-off.