Lineages in these trees connect the individuals in a population sample and their evolutionary ancestors, which are the nodes of the tree. Evolutionarily successful lineages have descendants in the far future and are marked by thick lines; all other lineages are lost in the evolutionary process. (A) The relative numbers of mutations in successful and in lost lineages measure the predominant fitness effects in a population (orange dots: amino acid changes, blue dots: synonymous mutations). (B) The global statistics of nodes and branches measures the absolute rate of exponential population growth (indicated by the shaded area). (C) The local statistics of nodes and branches measures growth rate differences between clades. Neher and colleagues use this information to predict clade evolution.