During cell division, progression through mitosis is driven by a protein phosphorylation wave. This wave namely depends on an activation-inactivation cycle of cyclin B-dependent kinase (Cdk) 1 while activities of major protein phosphatases, like PP1 and PP2A, appear directly or indirectly repressed by Cdk1. However, how Cdk1 inactivation is coordinated with reactivation of major phosphatases at mitosis exit still lacks substantial knowledge. We show here that activation of PP2A-B55, a major mitosis exit phosphatase, required the phosphatase Fcp1 downstream Cdk1 inactivation in human cells. During mitosis exit, Fcp1 bound Greatwall (Gwl), a Cdk1-stimulated kinase that phosphorylates Ensa/ARPP19 and converts these proteins into potent PP2A-B55 inhibitors during mitosis onset, and dephosphorylated it at Cdk1 phosphorylation sites. Fcp1-catalyzed dephosphorylation drastically reduced Gwl kinase activity towards Ensa/ARPP19 promoting PP2A-B55 activation. Thus, Fcp1 coordinates Cdk1 and Gwl inactivation to derepress PP2A-B55, generating a dephosphorylation switch that drives mitosis progression.
- Tony Hunter, Salk Institute, United States
© 2015, Della Monica et al.
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The interplay among different cells in a tissue is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Although disease states have been traditionally attributed to individual cell types, increasing evidence and new therapeutic options have demonstrated the primary role of multicellular functions to understand health and disease, opening new avenues to understand pathogenesis and develop new treatment strategies. We recently described the cellular composition and dynamics of the human oral mucosa; however, the spatial arrangement of cells is needed to better understand a morphologically complex tissue. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, and high-resolution multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation to characterise human oral mucosa in health and oral chronic inflammatory disease. We deconvolved expression for resolution enhancement of spatial transcriptomic data and defined highly specialised epithelial and stromal compartments describing location-specific immune programs. Furthermore, we spatially mapped a rare pathogenic fibroblast population localised in a highly immunogenic region, responsible for lymphocyte recruitment through CXCL8 and CXCL10 and with a possible role in pathological angiogenesis through ALOX5AP. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive reference for the study of oral chronic disease pathogenesis.
Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prdx5) is involved in pathophysiological regulation via the stress-induced cellular response. However, its function in the bone remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Prdx5 is involved in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation, resulting in osteoporotic phenotypes in Prdx5 knockout (Prdx5Ko) male mice. To investigate the function of Prdx5 in the bone, osteoblasts were analyzed through immunoprecipitation (IP) and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) methods, while osteoclasts were analyzed through RNA-sequencing. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) was identified as a potential binding partner of Prdx5 during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Prdx5 acts as a negative regulator of hnRNPK-mediated osteocalcin (Bglap) expression. In addition, transcriptomic analysis revealed that in vitro differentiated osteoclasts from the bone marrow-derived macrophages of Prdx5Ko mice showed enhanced expression of several osteoclast-related genes. These findings indicate that Prdx5 might contribute to the maintenance of bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast differentiation. This study proposes a new function of Prdx5 in bone remodeling that may be used in developing therapeutic strategies for bone diseases.