The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior.
- Ronald L Calabrese, Emory University, United States
© 2016, Berck et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A challenge in analyzing dynamic intracellular cell biological processes is the dearth of methodologies that are sufficiently fast and specific to perturb intracellular protein activities. We previously developed a light-sensitive variant of the microtubule plus end tracking protein EB1 by inserting a blue light-controlled protein dimerization module between functional domains. Here, we describe an advanced method to replace endogenous EB1 with this light-sensitive variant in a single genome editing step, thereby enabling this approach in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC-derived neurons. We demonstrate that acute and local optogenetic EB1 inactivation in developing cortical neurons induces microtubule depolymerization in the growth cone periphery and subsequent neurite retraction. In addition, advancing growth cones are repelled from areas of blue light exposure. These phenotypes were independent of the neuronal EB1 homolog EB3, revealing a direct dynamic role of EB1-mediated microtubule plus end interactions in neuron morphogenesis and neurite guidance.
The adult human visual system maintains the ability to be altered by sensory deprivation. What has not been considered is whether the internal neural states modulate visual sensitivity to short-term monocular deprivation. In this study we manipulated the internal neural state and reported changes in intrinsic neural oscillations with a patched eye open or closed. We investigated the influence of eye open/eye closure on the unpatched eye's contrast sensitivity and ocular dominance (OD) shifts induced by short-term monocular deprivation. The results demonstrate that internal neural states influence not only baseline contrast sensitivity but also the extent to which the adult visual system can undergo changes in ocular dominance.