Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in intracellular and extracellular signaling events unrelated to metabolism. In animals, purinergic receptors are required for extracellular NAD+ (eNAD+) to evoke biological responses, indicating that eNAD+ may be sensed by cell-surface receptors. However, the identity of eNAD+-binding receptors still remains elusive. Here, we identify a lectin receptor kinase (LecRK), LecRK-I.8, as a potential eNAD+ receptor in Arabidopsis. The extracellular lectin domain of LecRK-I.8 binds NAD+ with a dissociation constant of 436.5 104.8 nM, although much higher concentrations are needed to trigger in vivo responses. Mutations in LecRK-I.8 inhibit NAD+-induced immune responses, whereas overexpression of LecRK-I.8 enhances the Arabidopsis response to NAD+. Furthermore, LecRK-I.8 is required for basal resistance against bacterial pathogens, substantiating a role for eNAD+ in plant immunity. Our results demonstrate that lectin receptors can potentially function as eNAD+-binding receptors and provide direct evidence for eNAD+ being an endogenous signaling molecule in plants.
Microarray analysis of exogenous NAD+-induced transcriptome changes in Arabidopsis thalianaPublicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE76568).
Microarray analysis of Atelp2, npr1 and wild type (Col-0) infected with the avirulent bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000/avrRpt2Publicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE38986).
- Zhonglin Mou
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Thorsten Nürnberger, University of Tubingen, Germany
© 2017, Wang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Photosystem I (PSI) is a multi-subunit pigment-protein complex that functions in light-harvesting and photochemical charge-separation reactions, followed by reduction of NADP to NADPH required for CO2 fixation in photosynthetic organisms. PSI from different photosynthetic organisms has a variety of chlorophylls (Chls), some of which are at lower-energy levels than its reaction center P700, a special pair of Chls, and are called low-energy Chls. However, the sites of low-energy Chls are still under debate. Here, we solved a 2.04-Å resolution structure of a PSI trimer by cryo-electron microscopy from a primordial cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, which has no low-energy Chls. The structure shows the absence of some subunits commonly found in other cyanobacteria, confirming the primordial nature of this cyanobacterium. Comparison with the known structures of PSI from other cyanobacteria and eukaryotic organisms reveals that one dimeric and one trimeric Chls are lacking in the Gloeobacter PSI. The dimeric and trimeric Chls are named Low1 and Low2, respectively. Low2 is missing in some cyanobacterial and eukaryotic PSIs, whereas Low1 is absent only in Gloeobacter. These findings provide insights into not only the identity of low-energy Chls in PSI, but also the evolutionary changes of low-energy Chls in oxyphototrophs.
The fern Ceratopteris richardii has been studied as a model organism for over 50 years because it is easy to grow and has a short life cycle. In particular, as the first homosporous vascular plant for which genomic resources were developed, C. richardii has been an important system for studying plant evolution. However, we know relatively little about the natural history of C. richardii. In this article, we summarize what is known about this aspect of C. richardii, and discuss how learning more about its natural history could greatly increase our understanding of the evolution of land plants.