Shade avoidance syndrome enables shaded plants to grow and compete effectively against their neighbors. In Arabidopsis, the shade-induced de-phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF7 (PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 7) is the key event linking light perception to stem elongation. However, the mechanism through which phosphorylation regulates the activity of PIF7 is unclear. Here, we show that shade light induces the de-phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of PIF7. Phosphorylation-resistant site mutations in PIF7 result in increased nuclear localization and shade-induced gene expression, and consequently augment hypocotyl elongation. PIF7 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Blocking the interaction between PIF7 and 14-3-3 proteins or reducing the expression of 14-3-3 proteins accelerates shade-induced nuclear localization and de-phosphorylation of PIF7, and enhances the shade phenotype. By contrast, the 14-3-3 overexpressing line displays an attenuated shade phenotype. These studies demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent translocation of PIF7 when plants are in shade and a novel mechanism involving 14-3-3 proteins, mediated by the retention of PIF7 in the cytoplasm that suppresses the shade response.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Lin Li
- Lin Li
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Zhi-Yong Wang, Carnegie Institution for Science, United States
© 2018, Huang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Purinergic signaling activated by extracellular nucleotides and their derivative nucleosides trigger sophisticated signaling networks. The outcome of these pathways determine the capacity of the organism to survive under challenging conditions. Both extracellular ATP (eATP) and Adenosine (eAdo) act as primary messengers in mammals, essential for immunosuppressive responses. Despite the clear role of eATP as a plant damage-associated molecular pattern, the function of its nucleoside, eAdo, and of the eAdo/eATP balance in plant stress response remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly relevant in the context of plant-microbe interaction, where the intruder manipulates the extracellular matrix. Here, we identify Ado as a main molecule secreted by the vascular fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We show that eAdo modulates the plant's susceptibility to fungal colonization by altering the eATP-mediated apoplastic pH homeostasis, an essential physiological player during the infection of this pathogen. Our work indicates that plant pathogens actively imbalance the apoplastic eAdo/eATP levels as a virulence mechanism.
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