Songbird circuits that support vocal learning (left), also labeled according to their homologous structures in humans (right). These include the cortex (gray and dark gray), the basal ganglia (Area X/BG; red) and the thalamus (green and light green). Pidoux et al. have revealed a functional connection (bold arrows) from an area in the cerebellum, the dentate nucleus (DN; blue), through the dorsal thalamic zone in the thalamus (DTZ; green) to Area X (red) in the basal ganglia. Abbreviations: DLM medial portion of the dorsolateral nucleus of the anterior thalamus; HVC song-related motor nuclei, used as proper name; LMAN lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium; RA robust nucleus of the arcopallium.