The otopetrin (OTOP) proteins were recently characterized as proton channels. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of OTOP3 from Xenopus tropicalis (XtOTOP3) along with functional characterization of the channel. XtOTOP3 forms a homodimer with each subunit containing 12 transmembrane helices that can be divided into two structurally homologous halves; each half assembles as an α-helical barrel that could potentially serve as a proton conduction pore. Both pores open from the extracellular half before becoming occluded at a central constriction point consisting of three highly conserved residues - Gln232/585-Asp262/Asn623-Tyr322/666 (the constriction triads). Mutagenesis shows that the constriction triad from the second pore is less amenable to perturbation than that of the first pore, suggesting an unequal contribution between the two pores to proton transport. We also identified several key residues at the interface between the two pores that are functionally important, particularly Asp509, which confers intracellular pH-dependent desensitization to OTOP channels.
The cryo-EM density map of the XtOTOP3 has been deposited in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank under accession numbers EMDB-0650. Atomic coordinate has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession number 6O84.
Cryo-EM density map of OTOP3 from xenopus tropicalisElectron Microscopy Data Bank, EMD-0650.
Atomic coordinates of OTOP3 from xenopus tropicalisProtein Data Bank, 6O84.
- Youxing Jiang
- Youxing Jiang
- Youxing Jiang
- Xiaochen Bai
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Baron Chanda, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States
© 2019, Chen et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Previously we showed that 2D template matching (2DTM) can be used to localize macromolecular complexes in images recorded by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with high precision, even in the presence of noise and cellular background (Lucas et al., 2021; Lucas et al., 2022). Here, we show that once localized, these particles may be averaged together to generate high-resolution 3D reconstructions. However, regions included in the template may suffer from template bias, leading to inflated resolution estimates and making the interpretation of high-resolution features unreliable. We evaluate conditions that minimize template bias while retaining the benefits of high-precision localization, and we show that molecular features not present in the template can be reconstructed at high resolution from targets found by 2DTM, extending prior work at low-resolution. Moreover, we present a quantitative metric for template bias to aid the interpretation of 3D reconstructions calculated with particles localized using high-resolution templates and fine angular sampling.
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