Lung disease causes significant morbidity and mortality, and is exacerbated by environmental injury, e.g. through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ozone (O3). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) orchestrate immune responses to injury by recognizing pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns. TLR4, the prototypic receptor for LPS, also mediates inflammation after O3, triggered by endogenous hyaluronan. Regulation of TLR4 signaling is incompletely understood. TLR5, the flagellin receptor, is expressed in alveolar macrophages, and regulates immune responses to environmental injury. Using in vivo animal models of TLR4-mediated inflammations (LPS, O3, hyaluronan), we show that TLR5 impacts the in vivo response to LPS, hyaluronan and O3. We demonstrate that immune cells of human carriers of a dominant negative TLR5 allele have decreased inflammatory response to O3 exposure ex vivo and LPS exposure in vitro. Using primary murine macrophages, we find that TLR5 physically associates with TLR4 and biases TLR4 signaling towards the MyD88 pathway. Our results suggest an updated paradigm for TLR4/TLR5 signaling.
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- Stavros Garantziotis
- Michael B Fessler
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Mice were given access to water and chow ad libitum, and were maintained at a 12-hour dark-light cycle. All experiments are approved by the NIEHS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
Human subjects: All subjects signed informed consent and all clinical research protocols were approved by the IRBs at Duke University Medical Center and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, as applicable. The study described herein is using data collected as part of several clinical or translational studies (NCT01087307, NCT00341237, NCT00574158) and were approved by NIEHS and Duke IRBs (Protocol IRB approvals # 10-E-0063, 04-E-0053, 12496-CP-004)
- Jos WM van der Meer, Radboud University Medical Centre, Netherlands
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Innate T cells, including CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, are characterized by their rapid activation in response to non-peptide antigens, such as lipids. While the transcriptional profiles of naive, effector and memory adaptive T cells have been well studied, less is known about transcriptional regulation of different iNKT cell activation states. Here, using single cell RNA-sequencing, we performed longitudinal profiling of activated murine iNKT cells, generating a transcriptomic atlas of iNKT cell activation states. We found that transcriptional signatures of activation are highly conserved among heterogeneous iNKT cell populations, including NKT1, NKT2 and NKT17 subsets, and human iNKT cells. Strikingly, we found that regulatory iNKT cells, such as adipose iNKT cells, undergo blunted activation, and display constitutive enrichment of memory-like cMAF+ and KLRG1+ populations. Moreover, we identify a conserved cMAF-associated transcriptional network among NKT10 cells, providing novel insights into the biology of regulatory and antigen experienced iNKT cells.
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