Subcellular asymmetry directed by the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway orients numerous morphogenetic events in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we describe a morphogenetic movement in which the intertwined socket and shaft cells of the Drosophila anterior wing margin mechanosensory bristles undergo PCP-directed apical rotation, inducing twisting that results in a helical structure of defined chirality. We show that the Frizzled/Vang PCP signaling module coordinates polarity among and between bristles and surrounding cells to direct this rotation. Furthermore, we show that dynamic interplay between two isoforms of the Prickle protein determines right- or left-handed bristle morphogenesis. We provide evidence that, Frizzled/Vang signaling couples to the Fat/Dachsous PCP directional signal in opposite directions depending on whether Pkpk or Pksple predominates. Dynamic interplay between Pk isoforms is likely to be an important determinant of PCP outcomes in diverse contexts. Similar mechanisms may orient other lateralizing morphogenetic processes.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all figures containing quantitative data.
- Jeffrey D Axelrod
- Jeffrey D Axelrod
- Jeffrey D Axelrod
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocol (#11840) of Stanford University.
- Danelle Devenport, Princeton University, United States
© 2020, Cho et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Lateral partitioning of proteins and lipids shapes membrane function. In model membranes, partitioning can be influenced both by bilayer-intrinsic factors like molecular composition and by bilayer-extrinsic factors such as interactions with other membranes and solid supports. While cellular membranes can departition in response to bilayer-intrinsic or -extrinsic disruptions, the mechanisms by which they partition de novo are largely unknown. The plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis spatially and biochemically departitions in response to the fluidizing agent benzyl alcohol, then repartitions upon fluidizer washout. By screening for mutants that are sensitive to benzyl alcohol, we show that the bifunctional cell wall synthase PonA2 promotes membrane partitioning and cell growth during recovery from benzyl alcohol exposure. PonA2’s role in membrane repartitioning and regrowth depends solely on its conserved transglycosylase domain. Active cell wall polymerization promotes de novo membrane partitioning and the completed cell wall polymer helps to maintain membrane partitioning. Our work highlights the complexity of membrane–cell wall interactions and establishes a facile model system for departitioning and repartitioning cellular membranes.
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