Schematics showing the three experiments performed by Schwettmann et al: in the first experiment, participants watched brief movies depicting basic geometric shapes of low or high mass (left, top). Participants were asked to judge the mass of the object shown in each movie. The second experiment used the same set of movies, except that the participants were required to judge the color of the object in half of the trials. In the final experiment, the geometric solids depicted in the movies were comprised of four different surface materials (lego, aluminum, cardboard, cork) that moved differently when the object slid down a ramp because of differences in mass and friction (left, bottom). Together, the experiments identified dorsal regions that consistently represent object mass, and showed that these representations are both automatic and invariant.