The concentrative power of the transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT) is thought to be fueled by the transmembrane Na+ gradient, but it is conceivable that they can also tap other energy sources, e.g. membrane voltage and/or the transmembrane K+ gradient. We address this by recording uptake of endogenous substrates or the fluorescent substrate APP+ ((4-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1-methylpyridinium) under voltage control in cells expressing DAT, NET or SERT. We show that DAT and NET differ from SERT in intracellular handling of K+. In DAT and NET, substrate uptake was voltage-dependent due to the transient nature of intracellular K+ binding, which precluded K+ antiport. SERT, however, antiports K+ and achieves voltage-independent transport. Thus, there is a trade-off between maintaining constant uptake and harvesting membrane potential for concentrative power, which we conclude to occur due to subtle differences in the kinetics of co-substrate ion binding in closely related transporters.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures 2,3,5,6 in the following DOI published by dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.6q573n5z8
- Walter Sandtner
- Walter Sandtner
- Harald H Sitte
- Harald H Sitte
- Michael Freissmuth
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Christof Grewer, Binghamton University, United States
© 2021, Bhat et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Genome and epigenome integrity in eukaryotes depends on the proper coupling of histone deposition with DNA synthesis. This process relies on the evolutionary conserved histone chaperone CAF-1 for which the links between structure and functions are still a puzzle. While studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAF-1 complex enabled to propose a model for the histone deposition mechanism, we still lack a framework to demonstrate its generality and in particular, how its interaction with the polymerase accessory factor PCNA is operating. Here, we reconstituted a complete SpCAF-1 from fission yeast. We characterized its dynamic structure using NMR, SAXS and molecular modeling together with in vitro and in vivo functional studies on rationally designed interaction mutants. Importantly, we identify the unfolded nature of the acidic domain which folds up when binding to histones. We also show how the long KER helix mediates DNA binding and stimulates SpCAF-1 association with PCNA. Our study highlights how the organization of CAF-1 comprising both disordered regions and folded modules enables the dynamics of multiple interactions to promote synthesis-coupled histone deposition essential for its DNA replication, heterochromatin maintenance, and genome stability functions.
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a critical role in chromatin regulation. It has been proposed that these PTMs form localized ‘codes’ that are read by specialized regions (reader domains) in chromatin-associated proteins (CAPs) to regulate downstream function. Substantial effort has been made to define [CAP: histone PTM] specificities, and thus decipher the histone code and guide epigenetic therapies. However, this has largely been done using the reductive approach of isolated reader domains and histone peptides, which cannot account for any higher-order factors. Here, we show that the [BPTF PHD finger and bromodomain: histone PTM] interaction is dependent on nucleosome context. The tandem reader selectively associates with nucleosomal H3K4me3 and H3K14ac or H3K18ac, a combinatorial engagement that despite being in cis is not predicted by peptides. This in vitro specificity of the BPTF tandem reader for PTM-defined nucleosomes is recapitulated in a cellular context. We propose that regulatable histone tail accessibility and its impact on the binding potential of reader domains necessitates we refine the ‘histone code’ concept and interrogate it at the nucleosome level.