1. Neuroscience
Download icon

Convergent and divergent brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with developmental dyslexia

  1. Xiaohui Yan
  2. Ke Jiang
  3. Hui Li
  4. Ziyi Wang
  5. Kyle Perkins
  6. Fan Cao  Is a corresponding author
  1. Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
  2. Department of Preschool Education, Anyang Preschool Education College, China
  3. School of Foreign Language, Jining University, China
  4. Florida International University (Retired Professor), United States
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2021;10:e69523 doi: 10.7554/eLife.69523
4 figures, 10 tables and 3 additional files

Figures

Functional and structural deficits related to DD in alphabetic languages and morpho-syllabic languages.
Figure 2 with 3 supplements
Direct comparisons between the alphabetic group and the morpho-syllabic group in structural and functional deficits.

Conjunction analysis showed greater reduction of both GMV and brain activation in the left dorsal IFG in morpho-syllabic languages than alphabetic languages.

Figure 2—figure supplement 1
Language differences in functional studies and structural studies in children.
Figure 2—figure supplement 2
Functional deficits in children with DD in each group and common deficits between them.
Figure 2—figure supplement 3
Language differences between the two well-matched groups in the confirmation analysis and how the current results overlap with the original results.
Structural and functional deficits in DD for alphabetic languages and morpho-syllabic languages.

Decreased GMV and brain activation were found in both groups in the left STG.

PRISMA flowchart of the selection process for included articles.

Tables

Table 1
Functional deficits in individuals with DD in alphabetic languages (JK represents the results of jack-knife sensitivity analysis).
RegionsMNI coordinateSDM-ZpVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)JK
Hypoactivation in DD
Left supramarginal gyrus−56,–46,304.9190.000010,742Left IPL, BA 40 (986)Left MTG, BA 21 (719)Left MTG, BA 37 (634)Left ITG, BA 37 (601)Left fusiform gyrus, BA 37 (479)Left ITG, BA 20 (414)Left STG, BA 48 (377)Left supramarginal gyrus, BA 48 (329)Left angular gyrus, BA 39 (307)Left MTG, BA 22 (300)Left cerebellum, lobule VI, BA 37 (285)Left STG, BA 42 (281)Left rolandic operculum, BA 48 (261)Left arcuate network (255)Left cerebellum, crus I, BA 37 (210)Left STG, BA 22 (201)Left supramarginal gyrus, BA 40 (198)Left superior longitudinal fasciculus III (182)Left IPL, BA 2 (167)Left inferior occipital gyrus, BA 19 (156)79/79
Right MOG42,–86,62.2440.0002361Right MOG, BA19 (208)76/79
Right STG60,–16,41.9360.001135873/79
Hyperactivation in DD
Right cerebellum26,–60,–28–1.5260.00001,559Right cerebellum, lobule VI, BA 37 (352)Right cerebellum, lobule VI, BA 19 (233)Middle cerebellar peduncles (212)79/79
Left caudate nucleus–16,12,6–1.4590.0000611Left anterior thalamic projections (364)79/79
Right caudate nucleus10,2,14–1.3170.0001520Right anterior thalamic projections (185)Right caudate nucleus (184)79/79
Table 2
Structural deficits in individuals with DD in alphabetic languages (JK represents the results of jack-knife sensitivity analysis).
RegionsMNI coordinateSDM-ZpVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)JK
Decreased GMV in DD
Left IFG orbital part−38,42,–162.3060.0001611Left IFG orbital part, BA 47 (217)20/21
Right STG56,–44,182.0240.0003560Right STG, BA 42 (156)20/21
Right caudate6,14,21.6950.002216621/21
Increased GMV in DD
Left IPL−42,–36,36–1.9760.0000237Left IPL, BA 40 (237)20/21
Right MTG50,–12,–14–1.0400.001417421/21
Table 3
Functional deficits in individuals with DD in morpho-syllabic languages (JK represents the results of jack-knife sensitivity analysis).
RegionsMNI coordinateSDM-ZpVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)JK
Hypoactivation in DD
Left IFG opercular part–48,10,284.0710.00002527Left precentral gyrus, BA 6 (623)Left IFG opercular part, BA 44 (278)Left precentral gyrus, BA 44 (195)Corpus callosum (178)Left MFG, BA 44 (162)12/12
Left supramarginal gyrus−58,–42,262.1490.00011001Left IPL, BA 40 (271)Left STG, BA 42 (153)Left supramarginal gyrus, BA 48 (144)11/12
Left ITG−48,–56,–181.7610.0008326Left ITG, BA37 (166)9/12
Hyperactivation in DD
Right precentral gyrus52,–16,44–2.0350.00002201Right precentral gyrus, BA 6 (640)Right postcentral gyrus, BA 3 (447)Right precentral gyrus, BA 4 (350)Right postcentral gyrus, BA 4 (215)12/12
Right MTG56,–10,–18–1.4530.001329810/12
Table 4
Structural deficits in individuals with DD in morpho-syllabic languages (JK represents the results of jack-knife sensitivity analysis).
RegionsMNI coordinateSDM-ZpVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)JK
Decreased GMV in DD
Left STG−50,4,–42.4660.00002,948Left insula, BA 48 (539)Left STG, BA 38 (392)Left rolandic operculum, BA 48 (226)Left MTG, BA 21 (215)Left STG, BA 48 (186)6/6
Left temporoparietal cortex−56,–40,182.1020.0002900Left supramarginal gyrus, BA 48 (188)Left STG, BA 42 (171)6/6
Left calcarine cortex−20,–66,142.4470.0000449Corpus callosum (297)6/6
Left MFG–32,26,402.3190.00014386/6
Increased GMV in DD
Right STG34,6,–26–1.5720.00011,829Right STG, BA 38 (261)Right ITG, BA 20 (250)Right MTG, BA 20 (212)6/6
Right precuneus12,–52,42–1.2540.00141562/6
Table 5
Direct comparisons between alphabetic languages and morpho-syllabic languages in functional studies.
RegionsMNI coordinateSDM-ZpVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)
Hypoactivation in DD
Alphabetic languages > Morpho-syllabic languages
Left MTG−54,–62,81.2030.00002,173Left MTG, BA 37 (453)Left MTG, BA 48 (294)Left MTG, BA 21 (293)Corpus callosum (184)
Right STG60,–18,41.0800.00002047Right STG, BA 22 (400)Corpus callosum (373)Right insula, BA 48 (278)Right STG, BA 48 (259)Right rolandic operculum, BA 48 (193)
Left fusiform gyrus−40,–42,–241.2790.0000924Left fusiform gyrus, BA 37 (198)Left ITG, BA 20 (198)
Morpho-syllabic languages > Alphabetic languages
Left IFG opercular part–48,8,30–3.9450.00002093Left precentral gyrus, BA 6 (512)Left IFG opercular part, BA 44 (274)Left precentral gyrus, BA 44 (191)Corpus callosum (161)Left IFG, triangular part, BA 48 (159)
Hyperactivation in DD
Morpho-syllabic languages > Alphabetic languages
------
Morpho-syllabic languages > Alphabetic languages
Right precentral gyrus40,–20,54–2.2620.00001,518Right precentral gyrus, BA 6 (525)Right precentral gyrus, BA 4 (306)Right postcentral gyrus, BA 3 (286)Right postcentral gyrus, BA 4 (171)
Table 6
Direct comparisons between alphabetic languages and morpho-syllabic languages in structural studies.
RegionsMNI coordinateSDM-ZPVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)
Decreased GMV in DD
Alphabetic languages > Morpho-syllabic languages
------
Morpho-syllabic languages > Alphabetic languages
Left STG−50,10,–18–3.1390.00001,218Left STG, BA 38 (322)
Left IFG opercular part–52,10,24–2.2530.0008409
Left MFG–28,16,44–2.8880.0001346
Left supramarginal gyrus−48,–44,24–2.7610.0001344
Left SOG−20,–72,20–2.9110.0001277Corpus callosum (187)
Left insula–32,14,8–2.0460.0015179
Increased GMV in DD
Alphabetic languages > Morpho-syllabic languages
------
Morpho-syllabic languages > Alphabetic languages
Right STG34,6,–28–1.8930.00011,397Right STG, BA 38 (246)
Left ITG−54,–58,–16–1.1120.0018161
Table 7
Multimodal structural and functional abnormalities in individuals with DD in alphabetic languages.
RegionsMNI coordinateVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)
Decreases of GMV and hypoactivation in DD
Left STG−52,–30,201,099Left MTG, BA 21 (237)
Right STG62,–32,14322
Left IFG, triangular part–46,42,0219
Increases of GMV and hypoactivation in DD
Left IPL−46,–40,381,689Left IPL, BA 40 (941)
Left cerebellum−40,–70,–24446Left cerebellum, crus I, BA 19 (159)
Decreases of GMV and hyperactivation in DD
Right cerebellum28,–52,–341,286Right cerebellum, lobule VI, BA 37 (273)Middle cerebellar peduncles (267)Right cerebellum, lobule VI, BA 19 (204)
Right caudate8,8,12600Right anterior thalamic projections (214)Right caudate nucleus (189)
Left caudate–16,8,14595Left anterior thalamic projections (353)
Table 8
Multimodal structural and functional abnormalities in individuals with DD in morpho-syllabic languages.
RegionsMNI coordinateVoxelsCluster breakdown (Voxels)
Decreases of GMV and hypoactivation in DD
Left STG−58,–38,221,566Left supramarginal gyrus, BA 48 (254)Left STG, BA 42 (253)Left supramarginal gyrus, BA 40 (153)
Left IFG opercular part–56,2,101,052Left IFG opercular part, BA 44 (151)
Decreases of GMV and hyperactivation in DD
Left STG−44,16,–22854Left STG, BA 38 (394)
Increases of GMV and hyperactivation in DD
Right MTG48,–6,–26493Right MTG, BA 21 (178)
Table 9
Functional studies included in the meta-analysis.
StudiesN(TD)N(DD)Age in monthsLanguageWriting systemSubject typeTasksThreshold
Voxel-wiseCluster-wise
Bach et al., 2010181499.6GermanAlphabeticChildrenCovert reading taskp < 0.00524 voxels*
Beneventi et al., 20091311160.4NorwegianAlphabeticChildrenSequential verbal working memory taskp < 0.00110 voxels
Beneventi et al., 2010a;1311160.4NorwegianAlphabeticChildrenn-back task (Letter)FDR p < 0.055 voxels
Beneventi et al., 2010b1412160.3NorwegianAlphabeticChildrenn-back task (Picture)FDR p < 0.05
Blau et al., 20091313301.8DutchAlphabeticAdultsLetter–speech-sound integration taskp < 0.001160 mm3*
Booth et al., 2007a1313126.0EnglishAlphabeticChildrenWord judgment taskp < 0.00115 voxels
Boros et al., 20161712129.7FrenchAlphabeticChildrenString detection and passive reading taskp < 0.001FDR p < 0.05
Brambati et al., 20061113368.5ItalianAlphabeticAdults and adolescentsWord reading and pseudoword readingp < 0.00120 voxels
Brunswick et al., 199966277.2EnglishAlphabeticAdultsExplicit reading taskp < 0.001
Brunswick et al., 199966294.0EnglishAlphabeticAdultsImplicit reading taskp < 0.001
Cao et al., 20081212148.2EnglishAlphabeticChildrenVisual word rhyming taskp < 0.00110 voxels
Cao et al., 20171317134.0ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenAuditory rhyming taskp < 0.001FDR p < 0.05
Cao et al., 20181923132.9ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenVisual spelling taskp < 0.001FDR p < 0.05
Cao et al., 20201716137.3ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenVisual rhyming taskp < 0.001FDR p < 0.05
Christodoulou et al., 20141212274.8EnglishAlphabeticAdultsSentence readingp < 0.001FDR corrected
Chyl et al., 20192424105.4PolishAlphabeticChildrenVisual word readingp < 0.00150 voxels*
Conway et al., 20081111420.0EnglishAlphabeticAdultsAuditory working memory taskp < 0.005150 mL
Cutting et al., 20131920147.02EnglishAlphabeticAdolescentsLexical decision taskp < 0.00534 voxels
Danelli et al., 20172320250.55ItalianAlphabeticAdultsPseudoword reading, auditory letter-name rhyming task, visual motion stimulation task and motor sequence learning taskp < 0.001FWE p < 0.05
Desroches et al., 20101212137.4EnglishAlphabeticChildrenAuditory rhyming taskp < 0.00115 voxels
Dufor et al., 20071614344.6FrenchAlphabeticAdultAuditory phoneme categorization taskp < 0.01
Eden et al., 20041919512.4EnglishAlphabeticAdultsWord repetition task and initial sound deletion taskp < 0.00180 voxels
Farris et al., 20161615112.2EnglishAlphabeticChildrenObject rhyming task p < 0.00110 voxels**
Feng et al., 20172014123.1ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenCharacter spelling task and character rhyming taskp < 0.00112 voxels*
Francisco et al., 20182021303.7DutchAlphabeticAdults1-back taskp < 0.001FWE p < 0.05
Gaab et al., 20072322127.8EnglishAlphabeticChildrenSound discrimination taskp < 0.0120 voxels
Georgiewa et al., 19991717168.0GermanAlphabeticChildrenLetter reading task, nonwords reading task, words reading task and phonological transformation taskp < 0.05p < 0.05
Grande et al., 20112520115.1GermanAlphabeticChildrenPicture naming task and words reading taskp < 0.001t10 voxels
Grunling et al., 20042117162.8GermanAlphabeticAdolescentsSlash patterns matching task, letters matching task, words matching task, pseudoword matching task and pseudoword rhyming taskp < 0.0110 voxels
Hancock et al., 20161116125.0EnglishAlphabeticChildrenWord rhyming taskp < 0.0150 voxels
Heim et al., 20102016113.9GermanAlphabeticChildrenFirst sound detection task, motion detection task, Posner attention task,auditory discrimination taskp < 0.001p < 0.05
Heim et al., 20131511435.4GermanAlphabeticAdultsOvert word readingp < 0.05
Heim et al., 20151033118.9GermanAlphabeticChildrenOvert word readingFWE p < 0.05100 voxels
Hernandez et al., 20131615252.7FrenchAlphabeticAdultsWord rhyming task and font matching taskp < 0.001*
Higuchi et al., 20201411172.7JapaneseMorpho-syllabicAdolescentsCharacter/picture passive viewing taskp < 0.00520 voxels
Hoeft et al., 20061010133.9EnglishAlphabeticChildrenVisual word rhyming taskp < 0.00110 voxels
Hoeft et al., 20071919172.8EnglishAlphabeticAdolescentsVisual word rhyming taskp < 0.00110 voxels
Horowitz-Kraus et al., 2016910120.5EnglishAlphabeticChildrenNarrative comprehension taskp < 0.001FWE corrected
Hu et al., 201088171.6ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenSematic match task, word/ picture naming taskp < 0.001*
Hu et al., 20101011164.5EnglishAlphabeticChildrenSematic match task, word/ picture naming taskp < 0.001*
Ingvar et al., 200299287.0SwedishAlphabeticAdultsWord reading task and nonword reading taskp < 0.001
Jaffe-Dax et al., 20181920302.2HebrewAlphabeticAdultsTone frequency discrimination taskp < 0.05 corrected
Kast et al., 20111312314.5GermanAlphabeticAdultsLexical decision taskp < 0.00130 voxels
Kovelman et al., 20121212108.4EnglishAlphabeticChildrenAuditory words rhyming task and auditory words matching taskp < 0.00125 voxels*
Kronbichler et al., 20061513187.9GermanAlphabeticAdolescentsSentence verification taskFDR p < 0.054 voxels
Kronschnabel et al., 20132213191.7GermanAlphabeticAdolescentsRapid serial visual stimulation detect taskp < 0.005160 voxels*
Kronschnabel et al., 20142213190.9GermanAlphabeticAdolescentsTarget detection taskp < 0.005160 voxels*
Landi et al., 20101313157.8EnglishAlphabeticAdolescentsRhyming task and semantic categorization taskFDR p < 0.0120 voxels
Langer et al., 20151515119.4EnglishAlphabeticChildrenSentence reading taskp < 0.00550 voxels
Liu et al., 20121111142.8ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenWord rhyming task and semantic judgment taskp < 0.000218 voxels*
Liu et al., 2013a1414141.8ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenLexical match task and character rhyming task p < 0.00110 voxels
Lobier et al., 20141212129.6FrenchAlphabeticAdultsvisual categorization of character taskp < 0.00120 voxels
MacSweeney et al., 200977343.5EnglishAlphabeticAdultsPicture rhyming taskp < 0.0120 voxels
Maurer et al., 20111611136.6GermanAlphabeticChildrenWord matching task, pseudoword matching task, picture matching taskp < 0.0130 voxels*
McCrory et al., 200068275.0EnglishAlphabeticAdultsWords and pseudowords productionp < 0.001,
McCrory et al., 2005108242.0EnglishAlphabeticAdultsWords reading and pictures namingp < 0.05 corrected
Meyler et al., 20081223129.6EnglishAlphabeticChildrenSentence comprehensionp < 0.00210 voxels
Monzalvo et al., 20122323130.0FrenchAlphabeticChildrenPassive picture/word viewing task and passive sentence listening taskp < 0.001p < 0.05 corrected
Olulade et al., 201296247.7EnglishAlphabeticAdultsWord rhyme task3-D spatial rotationsp < 0.00510 voxels
Olulade et al., 20151216120.5EnglishAlphabeticChildrenImplicit word readingp < 0.00120 voxels
Paulesu et al., 20013636286.4English, French, ItalianAlphabeticAdultsWord and non-word reading taskp< 0.001corrected
Paulesu et al., 199655314.5EnglishAlphabeticAdultsLetter rhyming and letter memoryp < 0.001
Pecini et al., 20111313276.0ItalianAlphabeticAdults and adolescentsRhyme-generation taskp < 0.05 corrected100 mm3
Pekkola et al., 20061010330.6FinnishAlphabeticAdultsAudio-visual speech perceptionz > 1.8p < 0.05 corrected
Perrachione et al., 20161919279.6EnglishAlphabeticAdultsSpeech perceptionp < 0.001p < 0.001 FDR
Perrachione et al., 20162423267.0EnglishAlphabeticAdultsSpoken words listening, Written words, objects, and faces viewingp < 0.001p < 0.001 FDR
Perrachione et al., 2016252695.4EnglishAlphabeticChildrenSpoken words listening, Written words, objects, and faces viewingp < 0.001p < 0.05 FDR
Peyrin et al., 20111212120.0FrenchAlphabeticChildrenCategorical matching taskp < 0.00115 voxels
Prasad et al., 20201516144.0HindiSyllabicChildren and adolescentsAuditory rhyming task, picture-naming task and semantic tasksp < 0.001
Reilhac et al., 20131212306.6FrenchAlphabeticAdultsPerceptual matching taskp < 0.00115 voxels
Richlan et al., 20101815215.8GermanAlphabeticAdults and adolescentsphonological decision taskp < 0.00520 voxels
Rimrodt et al., 20091514141.0EnglishAlphabeticChildrenSentence comprehension taskp < 0.00178 voxels*
Ruff et al., 2002116348.7FrenchAlphabeticAadultsPassive listening taskp < 0.0138 voxels
Rumsey et al., 19971417313.2EnglishAlphabeticAdultsPronunciation task and lexical decision taskp < 0.01
Schulz et al., 20082112137.7GermanAlphabeticChildrenSentence reading taskp < 0.001
Schulz et al., 20091515138.0GermanAlphabeticChildrenSentence reading taskp < 0.001
Siok et al., 200488132.0ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenHomophone judgement task and lexical decision taskp < 0.00120 voxels
Siok et al., 20081212131.5ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenCharacter rhyming taskp < 0.00510 voxels
Siok et al., 20091212131.5ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenFont size judgment taskp < 0.05 FDR corrected10 voxels
Steinbrink et al., 20121214223.7GermanAlphabeticAdults and adolescentsSyllable discriminationp < 0.05 FWE corrected
Temple et al., 2000108362.7EnglishAlphabeticAdultsPitch discrimination taskp < 0.001
Temple et al., 20011524127.5EnglishAlphabeticChildrenLetter rhyming task, letter matching taskp < 0.00120 voxels
van der Mark et al., 20092418136.1GermanAlphabeticChildrenPhonological lexical decision taskp < 0.00110 voxels
van Ermingen-Marbach et al., 2013a1317117.2GermanAlphabeticChildrenPhoneme detection taskp < 0.00110 voxels
van Ermingen-Marbach et al., 2013a1314116.4GermanAlphabeticChildrenPhoneme detection taskp < 0.00110 voxels
van Ermingen-Marbach et al., 2013b1032117.0GermanAlphabeticChildrenInitial phoneme deletion taskp < 0.0130 voxels
Vasic et al., 20081312219.6GermanAlphabeticAdultsVerbal working memory taskp < 0.005p < 0.05
Waldie et al., 20131612365.1EnglishAlphabeticAdultsGo/no-go lexical decision taskp < 0.001
Weiss et al., 20162221325.1HebrewAlphabeticAdultsWord reading taskp < 0.00150 voxels
Wimmer et al., 20101920247.6GermanAlphabeticAdults and adolescentsPhonological lexical decision taskp < 0.00510 voxels
Yang and Tan, 20201616123.5ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenHomophone judgments task and component judgments taskp < 0.00525 voxels*
Zuk et al., 20181311114.0EnglishAlphabeticChildrenFirst sound matching taskp < 0.00550 voxels
  1. *

    equivalent to p < 0.05 corrected; ** equivalent to p < 0.01 corrected.

Table 10
Structural studies included in the meta-analysis.
StudyN(TD)N(DD)Age in monthsLanguageWriting systemSubject typeThreshold
Voxel-wiseCluster-wise
Adrian-Ventura et al., 20201213146.2SpanishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.05 FWE corrected750 voxels
Brambati et al., 20041110352.8ItalianAlphabeticAdults and adolescentsp < 0.05 corrected for small brain volume
Brown et al., 20011416288.0EnglishAlphabeticAdultsp < 0.05p < 0.05
Eckert et al., 20051313136.5EnglishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.001
Evans et al., 2014a1414505.8EnglishAlphabeticAdultsPp< 0.001p < 0.05
Evans et al., 2014a1313371.4EnglishAlphabeticAdultsp < 0.001p< 0.05
Evans et al., 2014a1515107.4EnglishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.001p < 0.05
Evans et al., 2014a1717115.2EnglishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.001p < 0.05
Hoeft et al., 20071919172.8EnglishAlphabeticChildren and adolescentsp < 0.01p < 0.01
Jagger-Rickels et al., 20183217114.2EnglishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.001
Jednorog et al., 20143546123.5PolishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.001p < 0.05
Jednorog et al., 2015106130123.9French, German, PolishAlphabeticChildrenp < 0.001150 voxels*
Krafnick et al., 20141515118.2EnglishAlphabeticChildrenPp< 0.01p < 0.01 FWE corrected
Kronbichler et al., 20081513187.9GermanAlphabeticAdolescentsp < 0.005
Liu et al., 2013b1818141.4ChineseMorpho-syllabicCchildrenp < 0.001196 voxels
Menghini et al., 20081010489.0ItalianAlphabeticAdultp < 0.005p < 0.05 corrected
Moreau et al., 20191212352.2EnglishAlphabeticAdultp < 0.05 FWE corrected
Pernet et al., 20093938336.0FrenchAlphabeticAdultp< 0.05 FDR corrected
Silani et al., 20053232304.5Italian, French, EnglishAlphabeticAdults
Siok et al., 20081616132.0ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenp < 0.05 FWE corrected50 voxels
Steinbrink et al., 200888262.8GermanAlphabeticAdultsp < 0.05 FDR corrected
Tamboer et al., 20155737245.3DutchAlphabeticAdultsp < 0.05200 voxels
Vinckenbosch et al., 20051013282.0FrenchAlphabeticAdultsp < 0.01p < 0.05
Wang et al., 20191727134.0ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenp < 0.001p < 0.05 FWE corrected
Xia et al., 20161212132.0ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenp < 0.001
Xia et al., 20161212169.2ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenp < 0.001
Yang et al., 2016149149.0ChineseMorpho-syllabicChildrenp < 0.001111 voxels*
  1. *

    equivalent to 0.05 corrected; ** equivalent to 0.01 corrected.

Additional files

Supplementary file 1

Additional results for the meta-analysis.

(a) Functional deficits in children with DD in alphabetic languages (b) Structural deficits in children with DD in alphabetic languages (c) Direct comparations between functional studies in alphabetic languages and morpho-syllabic languages for children with DD (d) Direct comparations between structural studies in alphabetic languages and morpho-syllabic languages for children with DD (e) Language differences in functional studies between the two well-matched groups in the confirmation analysis (f) Abnormal brain functions found in the current study that were reported in each functional study of the alphabetic language group (g) Abnormal brain structures found in the current study that were reported in each structural study of the alphabetic group (h) Abnormal brain functions found in the current study that were reported in each functional study of the morpho-syllabic group (i) Abnormal brain structures found in the current study that were reported in each structural study of the morpho-syllabic group.

https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/69523/elife-69523-supp1-v2.docx
Supplementary file 2

Key words used in literature retrieval.

https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/69523/elife-69523-supp2-v2.docx
Transparent reporting form
https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/69523/elife-69523-transrepform1-v2.docx

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)