(a) Attention in outcome binding. The distribution of attention around the clock rim, at the time close to the event requiring a timing report, receives modulation from both action and action outcome. When the sound time is reported, attention increases only after the onset of the sound in the sound only condition. In the action sound condition, attention is activated prior to the sound onset due to action. The difference in the attention distribution between the two conditions can lead to the difference in the reported clock hand position at the time of sound onset (i.e. outcome binding). (b) Attention in action binding. When the action time is reported, the sound in the action sound condition is an extra cue for attention activation compared to the action only condition. Therefore, there is more attention in the action sound condition than the action only condition at clock hand positions after the sound playtime, leading to a later reported clock hand position in the action sound time (i.e. action binding). Please refer to the text for detailed information. A stands for the actual clock hand position when the voluntary keypress is made, and A’ is the reported A from participants. S stands for the actual clock hand position when the sound is played, and S’ is the reported S from participants.