Table 3. | Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

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Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

Table 3.

Affiliation details

James Cook University, Australia; University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States; Simon Fraser University, Canada; University of Colorado Denver, United States; Duke University, United States; Texas A&M University, United States; University of Zurich, Switzerland; American University, United States
Table 3.

Taphonomic recording criteria (after Pokines and Symes, 2013)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.017

SignatureCharacters or taphonomic traces for recording
PreservationalGeneral state of remains (excellent, good, fair, or poor)
Cortical erosion/exposure of cancellous bone
Cortical exfoliation (bone loss in thin, spalling layers)
Postmortem breakage
Perimortem breakage/fragmentation or trauma
Rounding (erosion/tumbling in an abrasive environment)
Decalcified
Postmortem cracking of desiccated tooth enamel
Incidental surface striations/scratches
Soil surface exposureSurface cracking/longitudinal splitting from drying of waterlogged bone
Weathering (bleaching and cracking; sensu Behrensmeyer)
Mineral depositionCopper (green), iron (red), calcium (white), manganese (black), or other mineral oxide staining
Vivianite formation
Concretion
Water staining (presence of a water line from mineral deposits, colour differential line)
MechanicalExcavation damage
Micro-abrasion
Soil/burial substrateGeneral soil staining
Warping/flattening of elements (especially the cranial vault)
Crushing/compaction from overburden
Adhering/infiltrating sediments
FaunalAdhering fauna
Carnivore puncture and gnawing
Gastric corrosion, winnowing, or windowing of bone
Rodent gnawing
Invertebrate surface modification and damage