Table 3. | New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins

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New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins

Table 3.

Affiliation details

University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Università di Perugia, Italy; Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy; Università di Pisa, Italy; Studio Associato Grassi, Italy; Università di Firenze, Italy
Table 3.

Data and estimates for the five Laetoli track-makers from Sites S and G. Limited to S1, mean values, standard deviation and range are provided.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19568.020

Trackway

S1

S2

G1

G2

G3

Number of measurable footprints

11

1

9

2

8

Average footprint length (mm)

261 ± 10.5 (245–273)

231

180

225

209

Average footprint max width (mm)

104 ± 3.7 (99–111)

120*

79

117

85

Average foot index (%)

40.0 ± 1.9 (36.6–42.7)

51.9*

43.8

48.0

41.5

Average step length (mm)

568 ± 44.3 (505–660)

-

416

453

433

Average stride length (mm)

1139 ± 94.0 (1044–1284)

-

829

880

876

Estimated stature (cm)

H. sapiens§

163–186

144–165

113–129

141–161

130–149

H. sapiens°

171.6 ± 5.4

160 ± 5.4

141.4 ± 5.4

158.2 ± 5.4

152.2 ± 5.4

Au. afarensis

161–168

142–149

111–116

139–145

129–135

Estimated body mass (kg)

H. sapiens°

53.6 ± 3.7

46.7 ± 3.8

39.3 ± 3.7

52.6 ± 3.7

43.2 ± 3.7

Au. afarensis

41.3–48.1

36.5–42.4

28.5–33.1

35.6–41.4

33.1–38.5

Walking speed (m/s)

0.47–0.55 (0.93)

0.43–0.50 (1.00)

0.36–0.42 (0.79)

0.39–0.46 (0.88)

Relative speed (s−1)

0.25–0.34 (0.54)

0.33–0.44 (0.71)

0.23–0.30 (0.50)

0.26–0.35 (0.58)

  • *Values overestimated because of the enlarged morphology of the only preserved track of S2. §As in Table 2. °As in Table 2. As in Table 2. For walking speed and relative speed, values outside the brackets are based on the method of Alexander (1976), those inside the brackets are based on the method of Dingwall et al. (2013). See Materials and methods for details.