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    1. Neuroscience

    Neuronal activity determines distinct gliotransmitter release from a single astrocyte

    Ana Covelo, Alfonso Araque
    A single astrocyte can decode neuronal activity and, consequently, release distinct gliotransmitters that differentially regulate neurotransmission at single hippocampal synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Distinct modes of endocytotic presynaptic membrane and protein uptake at the calyx of Held terminal of rats and mice

    Yuji Okamoto et al.
    Capacitance measurements and pH imaging reveal distinct modes of uptake for endocytotic presynaptic membrane and proteins.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    A novel N-terminal extension in mitochondrial TRAP1 serves as a thermal regulator of chaperone activity

    James R Partridge et al.
    Cytosolic and organellar Hsp90s from higher eukaryotes have evolved a variable, and environmentally responsive N-terminal extension to regulate their activity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Incomplete vesicular docking limits synaptic strength under high release probability conditions

    Gerardo Malagon et al.
    The probability of occupancy of individual synaptic release sites at rest sets an upper limit to synaptic output when increasing action potential related calcium entry.
    1. Cell Biology

    Fusion pore regulation by cAMP/Epac2 controls cargo release during insulin exocytosis

    Alenka Guček et al.
    Live cell imaging shows that the cAMP-sensor Epac2, a target of major antidiabetic drugs, is central to fusion pore control during insulin granule exocytosis.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Reformulation of an extant ATPase active site to mimic ancestral GTPase activity reveals a nucleotide base requirement for function

    Taylor B Updegrove et al.
    Reengineering the nucleotide-binding pocket of an extant ATPase to restore ancestral GTPase activity revealed an ATP-dependent intermediate required for function and suggested why the protein evolved to use ATP.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Cryo-EM structures of the autoinhibited E. coli ATP synthase in three rotational states

    Meghna Sobti et al.
    A molecular model that provides a framework for interpreting the wealth of functional information obtained on the E. coli F-ATP synthase has been generated using cryo-electron microscopy.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Neuroscience

    Mechanistic insights into neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity from the crystal structure of Munc13-1 C1C2BMUN

    Junjie Xu et al.
    The crystal structure of a large C-terminal fragment of Munc13-1 provides a key framework to understand how Munc13-1 mediates neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Single molecule analysis reveals reversible and irreversible steps during spliceosome activation

    Aaron A Hoskins et al.
    Single molecule experiments reveal competition between spliceosome activation and the discard of the triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Arf6 regulates the cycling and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal synapse

    Erica Tagliatti et al.
    The small GTPase Arf6 plays a role in setting the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles and in the definition of the recycling route for endocytosed vesicles.