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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rhodoquinone biosynthesis in C. elegans requires precursors generated by the kynurenine pathway

    Samantha Del Borrello et al.
    Parasitic helminths infect over a billion humans and use unusual anaerobic metabolism that needs a rare electron carrier, Rhodoquinone (RQ), whose synthesis requires the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    N-chlorination mediates protective and immunomodulatory effects of oxidized human plasma proteins

    Agnes Ulfig et al.
    N-chlorination, a reversible, oxidative modification, turns plasma proteins into holdase-like chaperones, potent activators of immune cells and pro-survival factors for phagocytic immune cells.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Functional cross-talk between allosteric effects of activating and inhibiting ligands underlies PKM2 regulation

    Jamie A Macpherson et al.
    Specific residues within an enzyme integrate allosteric inputs that originate from distinct ligand-binding pockets.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A dedicated diribonucleotidase resolves a key bottleneck for the terminal step of RNA degradation

    Soo-Kyoung Kim et al.
    RNA degradation is completed through specific intermediates, such as diribonucleotides, which must be removed from the cells by a specific enzyme.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    The mechanism of error induction by the antibiotic viomycin provides insight into the fidelity mechanism of translation

    Mikael Holm et al.
    The antibiotic viomycin induces errors during initial codon selection by the ribosome by locking the monitoring bases in their active conformation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Silencing cryptic specialized metabolism in Streptomyces by the nucleoid-associated protein Lsr2

    Emma J Gehrke et al.
    In Streptomyces, the nucleoid-associated protein Lsr2 functions as a xenogenic silencer of foreign genes, and as a metabolic gatekeeper, repressing expression of both cryptic and well-studied specialized metabolic biosynthetic clusters.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Synergy between serum amyloid A and secretory phospholipase A2

    Shobini Jayaraman et al.
    SAA removes toxic products of lipolysis of the cell membrane by sPLA2, indicating that SAA and sPLA2 act synergistically to clear debris from injured sites, as required for tissue healing.
    1. Neuroscience

    Circulating transforming growth factor-β1 facilitates remyelination in the adult central nervous system

    Machika Hamaguchi et al.
    Although central nervous system (CNS) regeneration has been considered to be controlled by CNS microenvironment, CNS injury causes leading to leakage of circulating factors into CNS, which promotes CNS regeneration.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    IL-21/type I interferon interplay regulates neutrophil-dependent innate immune responses to Staphylococcus aureus

    Rosanne Spolski et al.
    Neutrophil-dependent innate immune responses to the human pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are modulated by an interplay between interleukin-21 and type 1 interferons.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Enterococcus faecium secreted antigen A generates muropeptides to enhance host immunity and limit bacterial pathogenesis

    Byungchul Kim et al.
    Enterococci faecium encodes unique peptidoglycan composition and remodeling activity that activates host immunity.