‘Optical tweezers’ measurements of single ribosomes and single mRNA molecules show that the translation rate depends exponentially on the applied force, and suggests that the ribosome functions as a Brownian ratchet.
By distributing receptor-binding and receptor-destroying proteins asymmetrically on their surface, filamentous influenza A virus particles create a Brownian ratchet that facilitates their passage through mucus.
Quantification of all the major on- and off-pathway kinetic parameters in the transcription elongation cycle reveals that RNA polymerase II translocates slowly in a linear, non-branched Brownian ratchet mechanism.
Structural analysis of the ATP synthase – in combination with evolutionary covariance analysis – reveals the fold of the a subunit and shows that the enzyme can adopt several different conformations, which support the Brownian ratchet model for generating rotation.
Carboxysomes, the carbon-fixation machinery of cyanobacteria, are equidistantly-positioned by dynamic gradients of the protein McdA on the nucleoid that emerge through interaction with a previously unidentified carboxysome factor, McdB.
A gain-of-function in a new chemical defense resulted in no trade-offs and and independent evolution between novel and ancestral defenses, suggesting low redundancy among different defensive chemicals.
Light-seeking strategies in Zebrafish larvae are dissected using a virtual-reality assay, and these data are used to establish minimal stochastic and neural-circuits models that quantitatively capture this behavior.