Plexin controls the spatial distribution of synapses by locally inhibiting Rap2 small GTPase activity along the axon, and a Rap2 effector, TNIK, which also plays a key role in inhibiting synapse number.
The first genomic view of beetle luciferase evolution indicates evolutionary independence of luciferase between fireflies and click-beetles, and provide valuable datasets which will accelerate the discovery of new biotechnological tools.
New experiments and theory reveal how the ability to see image details depends upon photoreceptor function and eye movements, and how fruit flies (Drosophila) see spatial details beyond the optical limit of their compound eyes.
Mechanical interactions between bacterial species with different motility characteristics play an important role in spatial-temporal dynamics of multi-species bacterial colonies and can lead to formation of complex patterns.
A striking dissociation exists in the medial prefrontal cortex, with different brain regions responding to value when commitments are deferred to the future and when prospects are judged to be undesirable.