Plexin controls the spatial distribution of synapses by locally inhibiting Rap2 small GTPase activity along the axon, and a Rap2 effector, TNIK, which also plays a key role in inhibiting synapse number.
A striking dissociation exists in the medial prefrontal cortex, with different brain regions responding to value when commitments are deferred to the future and when prospects are judged to be undesirable.
The first genomic view of beetle luciferase evolution indicates evolutionary independence of luciferase between fireflies and click-beetles, and provide valuable datasets which will accelerate the discovery of new biotechnological tools.
The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
Mechanical interactions between bacterial species with different motility characteristics play an important role in spatial-temporal dynamics of multi-species bacterial colonies and can lead to formation of complex patterns.
Building on previous work (Doroquez et al., 2014), it is shown that the centriole core of the basal body degenerates, but the outer wall remodels to template the ciliary axoneme in a subset of C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons.