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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Flavodiiron proteins 1–to-4 function in versatile combinations in O2 photoreduction in cyanobacteria

    Anita Santana-Sanchez et al.
    In vivo evidence is provided indicating that Flv2/Flv4, together with Flv1/Flv3, mediate O2 photoreduction downstream of PSI in a highly coordinated manner.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Notch/Her12 signalling modulates, motile/immotile cilia ratio downstream of Foxj1a in zebrafish left-right organizer

    Barbara Tavares et al.
    Foxj1a makes cilia ultrastructurally motile, while Notch signalling stops cilia movement in Kupffer's vesicle.
    1. Ecology

    Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium

    Zhi-Yan Du et al.
    The capacity for symbiosis between photosynthetic microalgae and early diverging lineages fungi was demonstrated with microscopy and stable isotope exchange of carbon and nitrogen.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The genomes of polyextremophilic cyanidiales contain 1% horizontally transferred genes with diverse adaptive functions

    Alessandro W Rossoni et al.
    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) analysis in polyextremophile red algae (Cyanidiales) provides explanations for the nonexistence of cumulative effects and eukaryotic pangenomes, and highlights differences between HGT and native genes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Microtubules soften due to cross-sectional flattening

    Edvin Memet et al.
    A combination of experiments, theory, and simulations shows that the elastic softening of microtubules when they are bent arises due to the flattening of their tubular cross-section.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    Optogenetics enables real-time spatiotemporal control over spiral wave dynamics in an excitable cardiac system

    Rupamanjari Majumder et al.
    Free optical steering of spiral waves by attraction-based dragging of their cores in optogenetically modified cardiac tissue.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A widely employed germ cell marker is an ancient disordered protein with reproductive functions in diverse eukaryotes

    Michelle A Carmell et al.
    GCNA proteins comprise a previously unnoticed family of proteins that has been enriched in cells carrying a heritable genome since the invention of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes, and has had reproductive function for at least 600 million years.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cell type-specific and time-dependent light exposure contribute to silencing in neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2

    Alexander M Herman et al.
    Optogenetic techniques, whereby light is used to activate neuronal cells, are quickly becoming widely used in neuroscience; but excessive exposure to light can actually silence certain types of neuronal cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    Single molecule imaging reveals a major role for diffusion in the exploration of ciliary space by signaling receptors

    Fan Ye et al.
    Membrane receptor proteins move through primary cilia largely by passive diffusion rather than by active intraflagellar transport.
    1. Physics of Living Systems

    The biomechanical role of extra-axonemal structures in shaping the flagellar beat of Euglena gracilis

    Giancarlo Cicconofri et al.
    The 'spinning lasso' geometry of Euglena's beating flagellum is revealed, and a model based on the antagonistic forces exchanged by axoneme and paraflagellar rod is proposed to explain its emergence.