Structural brain plasticity is encoded in the topographic distribution of Toll receptors and their ability to switch between alternative signalling outcomes, thus translating diverse sensory experience into structural change.
Shifts in pH that result from metabolic interactions between members of the Drosophila gut microbiota were sufficient to modulate Lactobacillus plantarum tolerance to the antibiotics rifampin and erythromycin.
The Pkpk and Pksple isoforms of the Prickle protein determine right- or left-handed bristle morphogenesis by coupling Frizzled/Vang signaling to the Fat/Dachsous PCP directional signal in opposite directions.
Responses to anesthetics differ among individuals and fluctuate stochastically despite constant drug concentration, however, the amount of noise driving transitions between the responsive and the unresponsive state is conserved.
In mammals, the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 acquired a proline-rich sequence that negatively regulates the spontaneous release of glutamate by reducing the exchange of synaptic vesicles along the axon.