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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural insights into mRNA reading frame regulation by tRNA modification and slippery codon–anticodon pairing

    Eric D Hoffer et al.
    Chemical modifications near the tRNA anticodon and specific mRNA–tRNA pairs combine to control the ribosomal three-nucleotide mRNA reading frame, essential for the sequential addition of amino acids into polypeptide chains.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    A large accessory protein interactome is rewired across environments

    Zhimin Liu et al.
    A massively multiplexed multi-condition screen shows that protein interactomes are larger than previously thought and contain highly dynamic regions that reorganize to drive or respond to cellular changes.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Artemisinin exposure at the ring or trophozoite stage impacts Plasmodium falciparum sexual conversion differently

    Harvie P Portugaliza et al.
    Treatment of malaria parasites with the frontline antimalarial drug artemisinin can increase the proportion of parasites that convert into transmission forms.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rapid purification and metabolomic profiling of synaptic vesicles from mammalian brain

    Lynne Chantranupong et al.
    Extensive mass spectrometry-based profiling of polar metabolites within synaptic vesicles that are rapidly isolated either from cultured mouse neurons or directly from mouse brains reveals their neurotransmitter composition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Optogenetic inhibition-mediated activity-dependent modification of CA1 pyramidal-interneuron connections during behavior

    Igor Gridchyn et al.
    The optogenetic manipulation of hippocampal neuronal circuit activity revealed plastic changes of pyramidal-interneuron connections in behaving animals, which were primarily governed by the firing rate change of postsynaptic interneurons.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Neuronal octopamine signaling regulates mating-induced germline stem cell increase in female Drosophila melanogaster

    Yuto Yoshinari et al.
    Genetic analyses using the fruit fly illustrate how neuronal system couples germline stem cell increase to an external cue, which is mating, through stem cell niche signaling.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A feedback loop governs the relationship between lipid metabolism and longevity

    Nicole K Littlejohn et al.
    The dual control of adiposity and longevity emerges from a latent intestinal feedback loop which simultaneously augments fat loss and shields lifespan from the deleterious effects of continuous fat oxidation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cannabinoids modulate associative cerebellar learning via alterations in behavioral state

    Catarina Albergaria et al.
    Cannabinoid receptors modulate cerebellar learning, not through direct effects on synaptic plasticity, but as a secondary consequence of their modulation of behavioral state.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Replication Study: Coding-independent regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by competing endogenous mRNAs

    Hongyan Wang et al.
    Editors' Summary: This Replication Study did not reproduce those experiments in the original paper that it attempted to reproduce.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Intestinal microbiology shapes population health impacts of diet and lifestyle risk exposures in Torres Strait Islander communities

    Fredrick M Mobegi et al.
    Host-microbe interactions are an important influence on changing disease burdens in vulnerable remote communities.