Proper development depends on establishing precise gene expression patterns in spite of the inherent noise in transcription, shadow enhancers buffer this noise by binding distinct input transcription factors.
Genomic analysis of Xenopus gastrula reveal that the transcription factor Sox17 interacts with the Wnt signaling effector ß-catenin on enhancers to regulate the transcriptional program underlying endoderm germ layer formation.
Tucked within a well-known story of diverging gene function is a single enhancer encoding two inseparable specificities that regulates two adjacent genes, each with different spatiotemporal expression patterns.
The sharp expression pattern driven by a classic, simple animal enhancer is determined by multiple molecular mechanisms, not only cooperative binding of the activating transcription factor as was previously thought.
Transcription-factor-dependent noncoding RNA transcription illuminates components of a transcription-factor-dependent gene regulatory network that includes enhancer-associated long noncoding RNAs and is necessary for cardiac rhythm.