Development of a real-time SnRK2 kinase FRET reporter reveals rapid SnRK2 activation by ABA, but not by Methyl-Jasmonate or elevated CO2, while directly demonstrating basal SnRK2 activity in guard cells.
VRAC activation, observed with a FRET sensor of intracellular LRRC8-domains movement during gating and by fluorometry, requires plasma membrane localization and diacylglycerol signaling, but is independent of intracellular ionic strength.
In mitotically aging yeast cells, the cytosol acidifies, the distances between the organellar membranes decrease dramatically, but crowding on the scale of the average size protein is relatively stable.
A quantitative understanding of molecular tension sensor function enables the production of unique sensors with desired mechanical properties as well as the ability to distinguish between protein force and protein deformation in mechanosensitive processes.
Neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus of free-flying echolocating bats represent 3D sensory space, and the depth tuning of single neurons is modulated by an animal's active sonar inspection of physical objects in its environment.