High-resolution maps and models of the bacterial ribosome provide new chemical insights into protein synthesis, and should enable the development of robust tools for cryo-EM structure modeling and refinement.
Computational models and software connect metagenomics to metabolic network reconstruction, assess metabolic complementarity between species, and identify critical species associated to functions of interest.
Potential for specific microbiome-directed, MHC-restricted shaping of a commonly selected HIV-specific CD8+ T cell population was suggested by MHC class I yeast display-based peptide screening approaches.
Bioinformatics and experimental approaches identify families of membrane proteins requiring the co-ordinated action of the Sec pathway and Tat pathways for their integration and define features of the polypeptides that mediate interaction with these pathways.
Parallel horizontal gene transfer has spread a bacteriolytic gene family to all domains of life, and has bestowed a niche-transcending adaptation in recipients that must deploy antibacterial molecules to survive in a bacterial world.