Bats' uniquely robust innate antiviral immune defenses select for faster transmitting viruses likely to generate extreme virulence upon spillover to secondary hosts with immune systems divergent from those of bat.
As the first fully genetically encoded method, PARIS allows cell-specific, long-term, repeated measurements of gap junctional coupling with high spatiotemporal resolution, facilitating its study in both health and disease.
Bioinformatics and experimental approaches identify families of membrane proteins requiring the co-ordinated action of the Sec pathway and Tat pathways for their integration and define features of the polypeptides that mediate interaction with these pathways.
PI(4,5)P2 plays a much broader role during the HIV-1 particle assembly process than assumed; it is indispensable not only for recruitment of Gag to the plasma membrane but also for the maintenance of Gag assemblies.
Genetic study of C. elegans neural development reveals the function of glia-neuron gap junctions in neuronal axon specification, and shows that glial cells regulate neuronal intracellular pathways through gap junctions.