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    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Empty conformers of HLA-B preferentially bind CD8 and regulate CD8+ T cell function

    Jie Geng et al.
    HLA-B*35:01 molecules that are peptide-deficient are thermostable, bind CD8 with higher affinity than their peptide-filled versions, accumulate at immunological synapses and enhance antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses.
    1. Neuroscience

    Real-time classification of experience-related ensemble spiking patterns for closed-loop applications

    Davide Ciliberti et al.
    A brain–computer interface for real-time identification of transient neural activity patterns enables causal inference of the role of these patterns in cognition through closed-loop manipulation.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Adaptive tuning of mutation rates allows fast response to lethal stress in Escherichia coli

    Toon Swings et al.
    Population mutation rates are highly flexible and evolvable under extreme stress conditions, matching changes in selective pressure to avoid extinction of the entire population.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Mice deficient of Myc super-enhancer region reveal differential control mechanism between normal and pathological growth

    Kashyap Dave et al.
    A tumor-specific regulatory region has been identified upstream of the Myc oncogene.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    High-resolution mapping reveals hundreds of genetic incompatibilities in hybridizing fish species

    Molly Schumer et al.
    Genetic incompatibilities are common and widely distributed throughout the genomes of swordtail fish, and prevent the regions of the genome around them from being exchanged between different species.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Mutations that improve efficiency of a weak-link enzyme are rare compared to adaptive mutations elsewhere in the genome

    Andrew B Morgenthaler et al.
    Mutations elsewhere in the genome play critical roles in improving fitness during amplification and divergence of a gene encoding a weak-link enzyme whose inefficiency limits growth rate.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Unified single-cell analysis of testis gene regulation and pathology in five mouse strains

    Min Jung et al.
    A statistical method for summarizing single-cell gene expression data identifies normal and disease-specific transcriptional programs from an atlas of 57,600 cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Cholinergic modulation of hippocampal calcium activity across the sleep-wake cycle

    Heng Zhou et al.
    Dynamic calcium activity in the hippocampus changes markedly across behavioral and physiological states and depends on muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neuronal reactivation during post-learning sleep consolidates long-term memory in Drosophila

    Ugur Dag et al.
    Consolidation of long-term courtship memory in Drosophila is mediated by a novel class of sleep promoting neurons that reactivates dopaminergic neurons engaged earlier in memory acquisition during post-learning sleep.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Functional and structural characterization of an ECF-type ABC transporter for vitamin B12

    Joana A Santos et al.
    ECF-CbrT is a bacterial vitamin B12 transporter that is structurally different from the well-characterized transporter BtuCDF, yet has similar functional properties.