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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Transcriptional down-regulation of ccr5 in a subset of HIV+ controllers and their family members

    Elena Gonzalo-Gil et al.
    A subset of EC/VCs have CD4+T cells with resistance specific to R5-tropic HIV infection associated with transcriptional down-regulation of ccr5, a phenotype that appears to be heritable, across multiple generations.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    AFF4 binding to Tat-P-TEFb indirectly stimulates TAR recognition of super elongation complexes at the HIV promoter

    Ursula Schulze-Gahmen et al.
    AFF4 increases the combined selectivity of HIV Tat and TAR for super elongation complexes 330-fold over P-TEFb alone.
    1. Medicine
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HIV-1 DNA predicts disease progression and post-treatment virological control

    James P Williams et al.
    Measuring HIV-1 DNA levels at the time of stopping antiretroviral therapy (when initiated during primary infection) predicts clinical progression and the time taken for plasma viraemia to become detectable.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Temporal proteomic analysis of HIV infection reveals remodelling of the host phosphoproteome by lentiviral Vif variants

    Edward JD Greenwood et al.
    A comprehensive whole cell proteomic map describing expression time courses of >6,500 viral and cellular proteins during HIV infection identifies Vif-dependent antagonism of key cellular phosphatase PP2A.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch

    Jonathan M Wagner et al.
    Folding and unfolding of a 6-helix bundle controls HIV assembly and maturation.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Diverse fates of uracilated HIV-1 DNA during infection of myeloid lineage cells

    Erik C Hansen et al.
    Uracil/adenine base pairs in HIV-1 DNA are attacked by the uracil base excision repair machinery in macrophages, which leads to HIV restriction and viral genome diversification by transcription-associated mutagenesis.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A virus-packageable CRISPR screen identifies host factors mediating interferon inhibition of HIV

    Molly OhAinle et al.
    Host restriction factors that block cross-species transmission also play a role in limiting the replication of highly-adapted HIV-1 in IFN-stimulated cells.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Population genomics of intrapatient HIV-1 evolution

    Fabio Zanini et al.
    Whole genome deep sequencing of many longitudinally sampled HIV-1 populations reveals that reversions towards ancestral HIV-1 genome sequences occur throughout the course of infection.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    Nagaraja Tirumuru et al.
    Human proteins that add or remove the methyladenosine modification of cellular RNA, or recognize methylated RNA significantly affect HIV-1 infection or viral protein synthesis in cells, suggesting an important role for HIV-1 RNA methylation in regulating viral replication.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    HIV-1 Vpu is a potent transcriptional suppressor of NF-κB-elicited antiviral immune responses

    Simon Langer et al.
    By inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, HIV-1 Vpu exerts much broader immunosuppressive effects than previously anticipated and may be an important determinant of chronic inflammation in HIV-1 infected individuals.