In the extremely selective fluoride channels from the bacterial Fluc family, fluoride ions access the pore via two points, an electropositive vestibule and a triad of conserved residues involved in anion recognition.
Development of nanobodies against a model pentameric ligand-gated ion channel demonstrates they can be functionally active as negative or positive allosteric modulators and offers opportunities for future drug development.
Independently gating ion channels typically act fast within milliseconds, but cooperative interactions within a cluster of channels allow for a memory of previous electrical activity for several seconds.
Cyanobacteria cope with both predictable day/night changes and natural fluctuations in light during the day by adjusting the expression dynamics of circadian-clock-controlled genes via a network of transcriptional regulators.
Structure modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and current recordings revealed the mechanism by which stabilization of voltage sensors in the resting and activated states determines the gating properties of the CaV1.1 calcium channel.