ER-stress sensing mechanism of the unfolded protein response sensor/transducer IRE1 is conserved from yeast to mammals, where in mammals, unfolded protein binding to IRE1's ER lumenal domain is coupled to its oligomerization and activation through an allosteric conformational change.
During initiation factor-independent RNA structure-driven translation initiation, a flexible RNA element drives the movement of a viral IRES through the ribosome's tRNA binding sites and promotes tRNA binding.
Quantitative FRET UPR induction assay is used to measure IRE1 and BIP association and dissociation by a variety of ER misfolded proteins and by an important BiP substrate-binding domain mutant, significantly enhancing the evidence for the allosteric UPR induction model.
The hepatitis C virus IRES binds and remodels preassembled eukaryotic translation preinitiation complexes, using specific initiation factor protein within a "bacterial-like" mode of initiation that can function in both stressed and unstressed cells.
Utilizing a conserved mechanism, a ribosome can initiate translation from a site within the insulin receptor mRNA to maintain protein synthesis even when standard mechanisms of initiating translation have been inhibited by stress.