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    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    BAD inactivation exacerbates rheumatoid arthritis pathology by promoting survival of sublining macrophages

    Jie Li et al.
    Phosphorylation-mediated inactivation of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein BAD confers the apoptosis resistance on synovial sublining macrophages, thereby contributing to the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
    1. Neuroscience

    Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells

    Yuntao Duan et al.
    Mice that lack the autism susceptibility gene Semaphorin 5A show excess excitatory synapse formation in dentate granule neurons and also altered social behavior, adding to evidence that a surplus of synapses contributes to the behavioral changes observed in autism spectrum disorders.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Negative regulation of conserved RSL class I bHLH transcription factors evolved independently among land plants

    Suvi Honkanen et al.
    An ancient and conserved genetic mechanism for cell differentiation is under distinct negative regulation in different lineages of land plants.
    1. Ecology

    Oxygen isotopes suggest elevated thermometabolism within multiple Permo-Triassic therapsid clades

    Kévin Rey et al.
    Two therapsid clades, dicynodonts and cynodonts, independently acquired and developed an endotherm-like thermoregulation during the Late Permian period, that probably helped them to survive the major global climate and environmental fluctuations of the end-Permian.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Homologue replacement in the import motor of the mitochondrial inner membrane of trypanosomes

    Corinne von Känel et al.
    Mitochondrial inner membrane translocation of presequence-containing proteins by the single bifunctional TIM complex of T. brucei requires an non-canonical J domain-containing protein.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The carboxyl-terminal sequence of bim enables bax activation and killing of unprimed cells

    Xiaoke Chi et al.
    The C-terminal membrane binding domain of Bim is shown to interact with and activate Bim enabling it to kill cells not dependent on anti-apoptotic proteins for survival.
    1. Neuroscience

    Functional limb muscle innervation prior to cholinergic transmitter specification during early metamorphosis in Xenopus

    Francois M Lambert et al.
    Molecular labeling, electrophysiology and calcium imaging have revealed a novel switching of neurotransmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction where motoneurons transiently release glutamate before acetylcholine at synapses on developing hindlimb muscles at the onset of metamorphosis.
    1. Ecology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A diverse host thrombospondin-type-1 repeat protein repertoire promotes symbiont colonization during establishment of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

    Emilie-Fleur Neubauer et al.
    The colonization of corals and their relatives by intracellular microalgae is facilitated by immunity proteins in the animal that contain thrombospondin-type-1 repeats, elucidating the inter-partner recognition processes required for the establishment of this ecologically important symbiosis.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    An unexpected INAD PDZ tandem-mediated plcβ binding in Drosophila photo receptors

    Fei Ye et al.
    Biochemical and structural studies uncover an unexpected mode of interaction, with unprecedented high affinity, between INAD scaffold and NORPA that is critical for Drosophila compound eye photo-transduction.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Background selection and biased gene conversion affect more than 95% of the human genome and bias demographic inferences

    Fanny Pouyet et al.
    Background selection and GC-biased gene conversion impact the human genome to a much larger extent than previously recognized in low and high recombination rate regions, respectively.