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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Functional divergence of paralogous transcription factors supported the evolution of biomineralization in echinoderms

    Jian Ming Khor, Charles A Ettensohn
    A gene duplication event has permitted the functional specialization of a homeodomain transcription factor through changes in exon-intron organization and these changes have supported the evolution of a major, phylum-level morphological novelty.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Neuroscience

    The LIM protein complex establishes a retinal circuitry of visual adaptation by regulating Pax6 α-enhancer activity

    Yeha Kim et al.
    Regulation of Pax6 expression through the α-enhancer fine-tunes amacrine cell subtype number, and consequently, the visual output of the retina.
    1. Neuroscience

    Loss of ZBTB20 impairs circadian output and leads to unimodal behavioral rhythms

    Zhipeng Qu et al.
    The zinc finger protein ZBTB20 is a morning and evening activity gating factor in mice.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neurogliaform cortical interneurons derive from cells in the preoptic area

    Mathieu Niquille et al.
    In vivo genetic lineage-tracing reveals the developmental trajectory of neurogliaform cells, the main effectors of a powerful inhibitory motif in the neocortex.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Developmental Biology

    An ancient Pygo-dependent Wnt enhanceosome integrated by Chip/LDB-SSDP

    Marc Fiedler et al.
    The Chip/LDB-SSDP complex integrates multiple signals to render TCF/LEF enhancers Wnt responsive.
    1. Neuroscience

    A genetically defined asymmetry underlies the inhibitory control of flexor–extensor locomotor movements

    Olivier Britz et al.
    Two classes of premotor inhibitory neurons have specific roles in controlling flexor-extensor behaviors in mice, which is the underlying neural mechanism for limb driven movements in terrestrial vertebrates.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Embryonic attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling defines niche location and long-term stem cell fate in hair follicle

    Zijian Xu et al.
    Long-term hair follicle stem cells arise by embryonic progenitor cells occupying a niche location that is defined by attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signal.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Integrated β-catenin, BMP, PTEN, and Notch signalling patterns the nephron

    Nils O Lindström et al.
    The patterning of the nephron is driven by a gradient in the activity of β-catenin and further defined by a network of BMP, PTEN and NOTCH signalling.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Neuronal sources of hedgehog modulate neurogenesis in the adult planarian brain

    Ko W Currie et al.
    Planarian brain neurons modulate their turnover by signaling to nearby stem cells.
    1. Neuroscience

    Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric asymmetries

    Sebastian Ocklenburg et al.
    Gene expression asymmetries in fetal spinal cord are triggered by epigenetic mechanisms suggesting that handedness has a spinal instead of a cortical origin.