Under conditions where the force of HIV infection per cell is high, partial attenuation of infection with inhibitors can increase the number of live infected cells and may paradoxically be beneficial for viral spread.
Undulatory animals moving on the surface must manage material memory by either having a slender anatomy that facilitates avoiding previously remodeled substrate, or using waveshapes that effectively utilize the memory.
Developing oocytes lacking Sphk2 sense high sphingosine levels and transcriptionally activate expression of the gene encoding Cers2b, to mediate a salvage pathway to reduce potentially toxic sphingosine.
Machine learning and experimental tests of receiver bias identify signal components critical to correct species classification in guenons, linking face pattern diversity to selection for species discrimination.
Studies in zebrafish and mouse implicate the PDGF signaling pathway in the communication between the endoderm and the myocardium that drives medial myocardial movement and thereby initiates cardiac morphogenesis.