Cortical astrocytes play key roles in NREM sleep by regulating sleep depth and duration through separate GPCR pathways, and differentially control neuronal slow-wave activity in local and remote cortical circuits.
The seemingly simple, constitutive response of the patched/Ptch1 gene to Hedgehog signaling is in fact regulated by large batteries of context-specific Hedgehog-responsive enhancers in both fly and mouse, allowing tissue-specific tuning of the Hedgehog pathway in animal development and evolution.
Drep-2 is the first representative of the evolutionary conserved CIDE-N protein family found at synapses and is required for associative learning by functionally intersecting with metabotropic signaling.
Genetic and biochemical analysis of two enzymes reveals that inositol pyrophosphate signaling molecules allow plants to sense and regulate cellular phosphate levels, and to take up more phosphate when needed.
In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, lipid metabolism and peroxisome biogenesis are regulated by the low-density lipoprotein related-receptor-1, and if disrupted, impair proper white matter development and adult repair.