The proteins Bax and Bak, which increase the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis, are also crucial for generating a mitochondrial membrane pore that is specifically involved in necrosis.
Evidence that C. elegans and mammals use homologous versions of the same protein (RIG-1) to activate antiviral defense mechanisms suggests that RIG-1 may have a conserved role in coupling virus recognition to virus destruction.
The differentiation decisions made by pluripotent cells depend on their exposure to appropriate extrinsic signals and also on morphogenetic events that control receptivity to those differentiation cues.
The ERK8 kinase blocks the export of glycosyl-tranferases from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum, and thus subsequent O-glycosylation of proteins that otherwise enhance cell motility and tissue invasion.
A new computational model of the Warburg Effect reveals that the rate-limiting step of glycolysis is variable, identifies new control mechanisms, and could help to predict the responses to targeting glycolysis to treat cancer.