mille-pattes micropeptides have conserved function in insect embryonic patterning together with transcription factor Shaven-baby and ubiquitin ligase Ubr3, except in flies wherein restoring broad embryonic Svb expression restores patterning potency.
The maize CLAVATA receptor, FEA2, functions in the perception of two different ligands, and remarkably that signaling from these different inputs is differentiated by the receptor interacting with two different downstream components.
A molecular model of the assembled COPI coat, determined by cryo-electron tomography of an in vitro reconstituted budding reaction, reveals details of interactions mediating coat assembly and shows the binding site of ArfGAP2.
Functional recapitulation of a likely evolutionary gain in gene expression shows that two genes are sufficient to switch mesoderm cell internalization from stochastic cell ingression to coordinated epithelial invagination.
Pair-rule genes in the wasp Nasonia function as in Drosophila in patterning anterior segments, and similar to ancestral insects in patterning posterior segments, illustrating a mixed-mode transition state between short and long germ embryogenesis.