Plexin controls the spatial distribution of synapses by locally inhibiting Rap2 small GTPase activity along the axon, and a Rap2 effector, TNIK, which also plays a key role in inhibiting synapse number.
When the neuropeptide orexin is peripherally administered in mice with septic shock, it penetrates the blood-brain barrier and acts in the brain to improve survival through multiple autonomic and neuroendocrine pathways.
The crystal structures of the intracellular part of the plexin receptor in the active dimer form, and its complex with a key downstream signalling protein Rap, provide insights into how plexin initiates a signalling cascade involved in axon guidance.
The universal eukaryotic DNA replication kinetics is the consequence of simple physicochemical rules resulting from the localisation of potential replication origins at discrete sites and the diffusion of limiting origin firing factors in the nuclear space.
The human Origin Replication Complex is shaped as a shallow corkscrew in a classic AAA+ organization reminiscent of clamp loader complexes with highly controlled ATPase activity as exemplified by Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations.