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    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Epigenetic profiling of growth plate chondrocytes sheds insight into regulatory genetic variation influencing height

    Michael Guo et al.
    Epigenetic profiling of femoral growth plate chondrocytes helps whittle-down GWAS height variants to fewer putative functional variants.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    TASEP modelling provides a parsimonious explanation for the ability of a single uORF to derepress translation during the integrated stress response

    Dmitry E Andreev et al.
    A model reveals how translation of an mRNA leader could provide resistance to global downregulation of translation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Chemical perturbation of an intrinsically disordered region of TFIID distinguishes two modes of transcription initiation

    Zhengjian Zhang et al.
    An inorganic tin oxochloride cluster specifically binds to an intrinsically disordered, histidine-rich, low complexity protein region and arrests de novo transcription initiation without affecting reinitiation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Translation initiation by the hepatitis C virus IRES requires eIF1A and ribosomal complex remodeling

    Zane A Jaafar et al.
    The hepatitis C virus IRES binds and remodels preassembled eukaryotic translation preinitiation complexes, using specific initiation factor protein within a "bacterial-like" mode of initiation that can function in both stressed and unstressed cells.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Evidence that Mediator is essential for Pol II transcription, but is not a required component of the preinitiation complex in vivo

    Natalia Petrenko et al.
    Mediator, a transcriptional coactivator complex, is essential for transcription but is not a required component of a functional preinitiation complex, indicating that Mediator is not equivalent to a general transcription factor.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Pirating conserved phage mechanisms promotes promiscuous staphylococcal pathogenicity island transfer

    Janine Bowring et al.
    Structural and genetic analyses reveal the highly evolved and unprecedented biological strategy used by SaPIs to spread in nature.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    eIF1A residues implicated in cancer stabilize translation preinitiation complexes and favor suboptimal initiation sites in yeast

    Pilar Martin-Marcos et al.
    Substitutions in general translation initiation factor eIF1A found as recurring somatic mutations in uveal melanoma destabilize the closed conformation of the preinitiation complex at the start codon and increase discrimination against suboptimal initiation codons genome-wide.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Interface between 40S exit channel protein uS7/Rps5 and eIF2α modulates start codon recognition in vivo

    Jyothsna Visweswaraiah, Alan G Hinnebusch
    The small subunit ribosomal protein uS7/Rps5 interacts with translation initiation factor eIF2α to stabilize first the open, and then the closed conformation of the pre-initiation complex to promote accurate start codon selection in vivo.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    The β-hairpin of 40S exit channel protein Rps5/uS7 promotes efficient and accurate translation initiation in vivo

    Jyothsna Visweswaraiah et al.
    A structural element of mRNA exit channel protein Rps5 performs a critical role in start codon recognition during translation initiation by stabilizing initiator tRNA binding to the pre-initiation complex.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Redox controls RecA protein activity via reversible oxidation of its methionine residues

    Camille Henry et al.
    RecA is inactivated by oxidative stress and repaired by the MsrA/B anti-ROS defense system.