Replicating experimental evolution from ancestral proteins shows that historical contingency steadily overwhelms chance and necessity as the primary cause of evolutionary variation in molecular sequences on long phylogenetic timescales.
The protein translocation apparatus of the inner- (Sec) and outer-membrane (BAM) interact to form a trans-periplasmic super-complex capable of long-range, PMF-dependent conformational changes to facilitate efficient outer-membrane protein maturation.
Malaria pre-exposed volunteers exhibit large breadth of humoral immune responses, with strong variation between individuals, which might compromise vaccine-induced humoral immune response due to natural imprinting.
Oxytocin in the amygdala suppresses freezing of mothers when exposed to a threat in the presence of their offspring, allowing for pup protection and transmission of information about danger from mothers to pups.
TET methylcytosine oxidases cooperate with B lineage-specific transcription factors to promote immunoglobulin gene rearrangement by depositing 5hmC, facilitating DNA demethylation and increasing chromatin accessibility at enhancers.